2013-12-31

peer-reviewed studies of the #HutchisonEffect

6.11, 6.15, 8.5: summary:
"Gertsenshtein (1962) established theoretically
that EM waves in a magnetic or static field
would generate a gravitational wave (GWave)
and also hypothesized an “inverse Gertsenshtein effect,”
in which GWaves generate EM photons.
. the Gertsenshtein effect is interesting;
because, it relates to the Hutchison effect:
in the presence of a electrostatic field
the interference of antiphase radio wave pairs
will produce gravitational waves (GWaves)
that can have profound effects in one of 2 ways:
# anti-gravity (causing objects to rise);
# cold fission (low-energy unlocking of
molecular and sometimes nuclear bonds).
. the only problem with the Hutchison effect
is that it was discovered by an amateur
who gets only chance results
using many possible means of action;
thus, the name "Hutchison Effect"
is not used much in peer-reviewed journals;
and furthermore,
the official USA studies of Hutchison effects
were considered classified;
so, while we have solid evidence of great power,
we have no solid documentation .
. that is, until the Gertsenshtein effect
which is both professionally accepted and Hutchison-like,
in that it deals with Tesla waves .
. it is claimed that what shows the most potential
is not the Gertsenshtein Effect,
but instead the Li-effect
"that utilizes a synchro-resonance EM beam
to create a very significant EM signal
that propagates not in the direction of
the synchro-resonance EM beam
and the gravitational waves (GWs)
but perpendicular to both the magnetic field
and the GWwave/EM beam directions;"
whereas the pure Gertsenshtein Effect
utilizes only a static magnetic field
and will generate as a second-order effect
a very slight EM radiation moving in
the same and in the opposite direction of the GWs .
. nevertheless,
what is significant to the Hutchison effect
is that there is, in the study of Gertsenshtein,
documentation of an aspect of Hutchison's,
that some sort of static field has an effect of
translating Gwaves into another form of energy .
. there are 5 fundamental energy forms:
# EM (transverse electromagnetic) waves,
# Gravitational wave (longitudinal EM pulses),
# molecular bonds,
# nuclear bonds
# thermal (submolecular kinetics) .


6.10: phy/scalar EM/Gertsenshtein effect:

usa officials scoff at HFGW claims:

from MITRE Corporation/JASON Program Office 2008
for Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Defense Intelligence Agency:
. JASON was asked by staff at the
National MASINT Committee of ODNI
to evaluate the scientific, technological, and
national security significance
of high frequency gravitational waves (HFGW).
Our main conclusions are that the proposed applications
of the science of HFGW
are fundamentally wrong;
that there can be no security threat;
and that independent scientific and technical vetting
of such hypothetical threats is generally necessary.
We conclude that
previous analysis of the Li-Baker detector concept
is incorrect by many orders of magnitude;
and that the following are infeasible in the foreseeable future:
detection of the natural "relic" HFGW,
which are reliably predicted to exist;
or detection of artificial sources of HFGW.
No foreign threat in HFGW is credible,
including:
Communication by means of HFGW;
Object detection or imaging
(by HFGW radar or tomography);
Vehicle propulsion by HFGW;
or any other practical use of HFGW.
For the relatively weak fields in the lab, on the Earth,
or indeed in the solar system (far from the
cutting-edge science[sic] of black holes or the Big Bang),
the general theory of relativity
and its existing experimental basis
are complete, accurate and reliable .
.
Ongoing ambitious experiments to directly
detect gravitational waves from astrophysical sources
involve long-baseline laser interferometers [1, 2]
for GW at frequencies at 10-1000 Hz;
planned satellite missions[3] could detect GW
in the 0.0001-1 Hz band.
The term HFGW has come to mean gravitational waves at
much higher frequencies of several GHz, say 10GHz .
These have never been detected .
.
A basic mechanism for generating a HFGW
is the direct conversion of an electromagnetic wave
into a gravitational one of the same frequency
by a strong static magnetic field (B0 ).
This Gertsenshtein [9] process is:
The GW power out, P#G W (out),
is proportional to the incoming power P#EMW (in).
. see also HFGW generation by
standing wave electromagnetic modes in a cavity .
. Proposed HFGW detectors have generally been based upon
versions of the inverse Gertsenshtein process.
.
The JASON study was motivated by
proposals to the US government
by a group centered around
the company GravWave R LLC,
(CEO is Dr. Robert M.L. Baker, Jr).
An important proposal is a concept for a detector of HFGW,
by Baker and Dr. Fangyu Li of Chongqing University, China;
see [10, 11, 12] and references cited therein.
These references project a detector sensitivity
many orders of magnitude greater than
detectors constructed or proposed by
other research groups around the world.
In turn, the various practical applications
proposed by the Li-Baker group
depend crucially upon high sensitivity
due to a homodyning reference beam .
We therefore have analyzed the Li-Baker detector proposal
in detail to determine its possible sensitivity .
. in the proposed Li-Baker experiment, [10, 11, 12, 15]
an intense steady magnetic field
is used to convert a gravitational wave
into a photon of the same frequency.
. we analyze the fractal membrane (FM)
that is proposed for use in the Li- Baker approach
for detecting GHz gravitational waves.
. see G.V. Stephenson briefing[15]:
the FM (fractal membrane )
gives a contribution to the Q of the system
of 3.4·10^21 in the radial direction
and gives an antenna gain of 6.3 · 10^4 (at beam center)
as a function of angle.
In other papers, the FM is assumed to give
a high concentration of the signal onto the detector
and an enormous discrimination against background photons .
. the FM is immersed in the Gaussian beam of microwave energy,
and, like the rest of the detector,
is supposed to be maintained at 20 mK
in order not to contribute to the
thermal background of microwave photons.

ref's
[5] Robert M. Wald, General Relativity,
University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1984.
[6] Clifford M. Will,
Theory and Experiment in Gravitational Physics,
Cambridge University Press, 1981; 2nd Edition, 1993.
[7] Clifford M. Will,
Was Einstein Right?, Basic Books, 1986; 2nd Edition, 1993.
[8] Richard P. Feynman, “Cargo Cult Science”,
in Surely You’re Joking, Mister Feynman,
W.W. Norton, New York, 1997;
[9] M.E. Gertsenshtein,
Wave Resonance of Light and Gravitational Waves,
J. Exptl. Theoret. Phys. (USSR) 41, 113-114 (1961).
[10] Robert M.L. Baker, Jr., Gary V. Stephenson, and Fangyu Li,
Proposed Ultra-High Sensitivity High-Frequency
Gravitational Wave Detector,
paper 011, 2nd HFGW International Workshop,
Austin, Texas, September 17-20, 2007.
[11] Fangyu Li, Robert M.L. Baker, Jr., Zhenyun Fang,
Gary V. Stephenson, Zhenya Chen,
Perturbative Photon Fluxes Generated by
High-Frequency Gravitational Waves and Their Physical Effects,,
to be published in The European Physical Journal C, 2008
[12] Robert M.L. Baker, Jr.,
High-Frequency Gravitational Wave Overview,
briefing to JASON on June 17, 2008.
[13] Dietrich Marcuse,
Principles of Quantum Electronics,
Academic Press, New York, 1980, pp.243-244.
[14] http://arxiv.org/PS cache/physics/pdf/0108/0108005v2.pdf, 2001.
[15] G.V.Stephenson,
The Standard Quantum Limit for the Li-Baker HFGW Detector,
briefing to JASON on June 17, 2008

the response:

Q&A: JASON Report on High-Frequency Gravitational Waves
On June 17, 2008, a research group called the JASONs,
composed of very influential and respected
university scientists, were given a briefing on the
generation, detection and applications
of high-frequency gravitational waves (HFGWs)
by representatives of GravWave LLC.
The JASON Report (JSR-08-506) was published in October 2008.
The Report was widely distributed to the US scientific community
and various press organizations reported it.
The JASON Report concentrated its criticism on
one particular HFGW detector presented by GravWave
(the Li-Baker HFGW detector)
and found that GravWave incorrectly analyzed it
"by an order of magnitude"
and that there was no credible application to, for example,
communications (involving HFGW generation) and propulsion.
The report based its analyses primarily on
a well-known theory termed the Gertsenshtein effect.

Q: What is the Gertsenshtein effect?
A: This effect, or rather the inverse of it
that the JASONs considered, was first published in 1962.
Essentially, it predicts that gravitational waves (GWs)
in the presence of a static magnetic field
will generate electromagnetic (EM) radiation
moving in the same and in the opposite direction of the GWs.
The generated EM wave is a second-order effect
that generates very little EM radiation.
Whether from the framework of classical or quantum theories,
the conversion of the a GW to an EM wave
will be extremely low.
Thus the EM photons in the pure inverse Gertsenshtein effect
cannot create a detectable signal.

Q: Is the Li-Baker detector
based on the Gertsenshtein effect?


A: No. It is based upon the Li-effect.
The Li-Effect includes elements of the Gertsenshtein Effect
and, more importantly, elements of
Einstein's Theory of General Relativity.
It is quite different from the Gertsenshtein Effect
since it utilizes a synchro-resonance EM beam
(the pure Gertsenshtein Effect
utilizes only a static magnetic field)
to create a very significant EM signal
that propagates not in the direction of the
synchro-resonance EM beam and the GW,
but perpendicular to both the magnetic field
and the GW/EM beam directions.
Thus the EM signal created can be
sensed in a region relatively free of noise
and is capable of detection.

Q: What errors were made in the JASON report?

A: The most serious error was the
analysis of the Gertsenshtein Effect
as a means for the laboratory generation of
high-frequency gravitational waves.
None of the many proposals that we know about
for the laboratory generation of
high-frequency gravitational waves,
involves the Gertsenshtein Effect.
An additional serious error is the assertion that
gravitational waves cannot be utilized as a means for propulsion.
A very well known example of the rocket propulsion effect,
which can be produced by gravitational waves,
is that of a star undergoing asymmetric octupole collapse,
which achieves a net velocity change of 100 to 300 km/s
via the anisotropic emission of gravitational waves
(Berkenstein, 1973).
Additionally, Landau and Lifshitz indicate
a change in the gravitational field itself
due to the passage of HFGWs.
Another serious error is the analyses of the Li-Baker detector
under the assumption that it is based upon
the Gertsenshtein Effect.
As has been stated, the Li-Baker detector is
not based on the Gertsenshtein Effect.

Q. Where did the JASON analysts go wrong?

A: The primary failing in their analyses was
not to thoroughly study several of the
basic peer-reviewed papers by Fangyu Li
in order for them to understand the Li-effect.
The basic peer-reviewed paper by Li, et al.
was given as the JASON Report reference [11],
but not thoroughly analyzed in their Report.
Their next serious error was not to study the other
laboratory high-frequency gravitational wave generators
and detectors presented to the JASON group
during the GravWave briefing to them on June 17, 2008.
They should not have concentrated solely on
the Li-Baker detector .

Q: Did the JASON analysts utilize
the usual approach to scientific inquiry?


A: No. The JASON analysts did not
avail themselves of the opportunity,
which most scientific investigators do,
to consult with presenters during their study.
For example, The GravWave presenters could have recommended
relevant peer-reviewed HFGW literature
and suggested they not waste time
studying the Gertsenshtein Effect in detail.
As far as we know, the Gertsenshtein Effect
has little relevance to useful HFGW detection
and no relevance to laboratory HFGW generation.

Q: Do you believe that the organizers of the
GravWave briefing to the JASONs

had a preconceived agenda to discredit
high-frequency gravitational wave research in general
and the GravWave LLC research in particular?

A: It is difficult to believe otherwise.
Ordinarily, an unbiased analysis of a technical presentation
would have involved some consultation with the presenters
in order to better define the subject matter.
Furthermore,
an exclusive focus on only one HFGW detector,
to the exclusion of the Birmingham University,
INFN Genoa and Japanese HFGW detectors,
which the GravWave presenters discussed
in their PowerPoint presentation,
would be unwarranted in an unbiased analysis,
as would be the avoidance of a discussion of
other HFGW-generator research presented by GravWave.
Only one HFGW detector paper
was scrutinized by the JASON authors
-- their reference [10].
Although never discussed in the GravWave presentation,
the Abstract of that paper did mention
the Gertsenshtein Effect,
but the first paragraph of the actual paper
admonished the reader to review the other literature
that clearly showed that the detector was
the result of a combination of
the Gertsenshtein Effect
with synchro-resonance,
the Li-effect and not the Gertsenshtein Effect alone.
Their avoidance of analysis of
the basic reference [11] in their Report,
which covered the Li-effect,
was certainly unwarranted in an unbiased Report.
CITATIONS:
Eardley, et al. (2008)
"High Frequency Gravitational Waves", JSR-08-506, October,
the JASON defense science advisory panel
and prepared for the Office of the Director of National Intelligence.
Bekenstein, J. D. (1973),
"Gravitational-Radiation Recoil and Runaway Black Holes",
Astrophys. J. 183, pp. 657-664.
Landau, L. D. and Lifshitz, E. M. (1975),
The Classical Theory of Fields, Fourth Revised English Edition,
Pergamon Press, section 108, page 349.
(Discusses the change in the static gravitational field
due to high-frequency gravitational waves)
Baker R. M L, Jr., Stephenson G.V. and Li F.Y. (2008),
"Proposed ultra-high sensitivity HFGW Detector",
after peer review, accepted for publication in the
AIP Space Technology and Applications Int. Forum,
Albuquerque, New Mexico 969 1045-1054,
(Reference [10] of the JASON Report SR-08-506
in which first paragraph admonishes the reader
to review four previous publications
and discusses the synchro-resonant Gaussian beam)
Li, Fangyu, Baker, R. M L, Jr., Zhenyun Fang, Stephenson, G. V.
and Zhenya Chen (2008) (Li-Baker Chinese HFGW Detector),
"Perturbative Photon Fluxes Generated by
High-Frequency Gravitational Waves and Their Physical Effects",
The European Physical Journal C. 56, pp. 407-423, 
(Reference [11] of the JASON Report SR-08-506 and one of the
fundamental references concerning the Li-effect)

peer-reviewed references

11: Gertsenshtein, M. E.,
“Wave resonance of light and gravitational waves,”
Soviet Physics JETP 14, No. 1, 84-85 (1962)
Stephenson, G.V.,
“Analysis of the Demonstration of the Gertsenshtein Effect”
in the proceedings of STAIF-2005
(Space Technology and Applications International Forum)
edited by M.S. El-Genk,
American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings,
Melville, NY 746, pp. 1264-1270. (2005)
abstract:
"In 1960, the Russian theorist M. E. Gertsenshtein
described the revolutionary concept that
light passing through a strong magnetic field
will produce a gravitational wave via wave resonance."

history of HFGW research

11:
. the first mention of high-frequency gravitational waves (HFGWs)
was during a lecture in 1961 by Robert L. Forward.
The lecture was based upon a paper concerning
the dynamics of gravity
and Forward's work on the Weber Bar.
    [ R.L.Forward and R.M.L.Baker,”
    Gravitational gradients, gravitational waves and the ’Weber bar’”,
    Lecture at Lockheed Astrodynansics Research Center,
    Bel Air,California,650N.Sepulveda,Bel Air,California, USA, Nov 16th,
    Lockheed Research Report RL 15210 ]
. The first actual publication concerning HFGWs
was M.E Gertsenshtein 1962
“wave resonance of light and gravitational waves”
(it is often called Gertsenshtein effect).

clarification of Gertsenshtein effect

11: clarification of Gertsenshtein effect
(magnetic field includes a static field):


Signal Photon Flux and Background Noise in a Coupling
Electromagnetic Detecting System for
High Frequency Gravitational Waves (revised version)
F.Y.Li, Yang, Fang, Baker, Wen, Stephenson,
Department of Physics, Chongqing University,
Chongqing 400044, P. R. China
GRAWAVE R LLC, 8123 Tuscany Avenue,
Playa del Rey, California 90293, USA
Abstract:
A coupling system between
Gaussian type-microwave photon flux,
static magnetic field and fractal membranes
(or other equivalent microwave lenses)
can be used to detect HFGWs in the microwave band
(high-frequency(microwave) gravitational waves).
We study the signal photon flux, background photon flux,
and the requisite minimal accumulation time of
the signal in the coupling system.
Unlike pure inverse Gertsenshtein effect (G-effect)
caused by the HFGWs in the GHz band,
the EM detecting scheme (EDS) proposed by
China and the US HFGW groups
is based on the composition of
both the synchro-resonance effect
and the inverse G-effect.

patented GWave engineering

11: Robert Baker Jr. 2000 patent on GWave engineering:
Gravitational wave generator
utilizing submicroscopic energizable elements

Abstract

The laboratory generation of GWaves
was discussed by Pinto & Rotoli:
General Relativity and Gravitational Physics, 1998,
World Scientific, Singapore.
They found (page 560) terrestrial laboratory GWave generation
to be " . . . at the limit of the state of the art . . . ",
but they did not consider submicroscopic,
specifically nuclear particles and associated forces
and did not discuss the jerk mechanism
for generating GWave .

. the following patent summary teaches that
jerking of a mass generates gravitational waves (GW)
or produces a quadrupole moment
and that the GWave energy
radiates along the axis of the jerk
or if a harmonic oscillation,
then radiates in a plane normal to
the axis of the oscillation:

see Robert M. L. Baker, Jr. 2000`
Gravitational wave generator:

The magnetic and electrical force elements,
operate in concert to produce a rapid
third-time-derivative motion of a mass.
[ie, an accelerating acceleration, or jerking motion .]
This action causes the generation of
high-frequency gravitational waves .
The mass acted upon by the coil elements
can be a permanent magnet or magnets, or electromagnets.
In the electromechanical-element configuration
the device can also be used for
the detection of gravitational waves .

A preferred embodiment of the invention
relies on the use of aligned target nuclei
so that all target nuclei act in concert .
. without nuclei alignment
g'wave alignment can still occur by
high-energy nuclear beam particle collision
or by impressing a high-frequency magnetic field
on a high-temperature superconductor.

Thus related to the GW generation process,
is the nuclei alignment system,
described in the three patents:
1968 GENERATING A SECONDARY GRAVITATIONAL FORCE FIELD
1968 GENERATING A DYNAMIC FORCE FIELD
1973 HEAT PUMP
[ summary:
. due to the Barnett effect,
some spinning items create a magnetic field,
where nuclear occilations tend to reorient
parallel with the axis of the rotating;
and, within this magnetic field,
adjacent stationary mass is also affected
such that its nuclear occilations reorient .]

. the nuclei are aligned
or constrained as to spin
or some other nuclear condition
by being placed in an electromagnetic field,
in a superconducting state,
[or by being] spin polarized, etc.
This results in
the products of all of the nuclear reactions
being emitted in approximately
the same preferred direction.
Each emission from a high-frequency pulsed particle beam
results in a recoil impulse on the nuclei
that jerks the nuclei or
causes them to harmonically oscillate
and results in an emission of
gravitational waves or wave/particles
also called "gravitational instantons".

. assuming GWaves are moved at a rate
significantly slower* than light speed,
the particles of the beam
can be accelerated to this GWave speed
and move through the ensemble of target nuclei,
in step with the forward-moving
or radially-moving GWave.
Thus, the GWave builds up amplitude
as the particles of the beam
move through the target particles in concert
to generate coherent GWaves
and emulate a much larger target mass.
*: [6.15, 8.5:
. GWaves(EM pulses), in contrast to EM waves,
can be at any speed, either slower
or much faster than the speed of light .]

primer on basic electricity

11: web.phy/scalar EM/Gertsenshtein effect
/electrostatic vs magnetic field:

. this is a primer on basic electricity;
to help understand the Gertsenshtein Effect,
and the Li-effect .
techtarget.com
Electrostatic fields arise from a
potential difference or voltage gradient,
and can exist when electrons are stationary;
Magnetic fields arise from moving electrons .
When nearby objects have different electrical charges,
an electrostatic field exists between them.
An electrostatic field also forms around
any single object that is electrically charged
with respect to its environment;
eg, an object is negatively charged if
it has an excess of electrons
relative to its surroundings).
. in both Electrostatic and magnetic fields,
opposite polarities attract,
while like polarities repel .
The lines of flux look the same .
. most metals conduct magnetic fields
but they block Electrostatic fields .
. non-moving electrons possess an electrostatic fields;
moving electrons generate a Magnetic field
alternating currents of electrons
generate both a fluctuating magnetic field,
and a fluctuating electric field,
resulting electromagnetic waves .
Van de Graaff electrostatic field generator
. electrostatic machine produces static electricity,
or electricity at high voltage and low continuous current.
. Nikola Tesla wrote a Scientific American article,
"Possibilities of Electro-Static Generators" in 1934
concerning the Van de Graaff generator (pp. 132–134 and 163-165).
Tesla stated, "I believe that when new types
[of Van de Graaff generators] are developed
and sufficiently improved
a great future will be assured to them".
Van_de_Graaff_generator .
Magnetostatics:
. the study of magnetic fields in systems where
the currents are steady (not changing with time).
It is the magnetic analogue of electrostatics,
where the charges are stationary.
Tesla_coil:
Tesla coil is an electrical resonant transformer circuit
producing high-voltage, low-current,
high frequency alternating-current electricity.
In a conventional transformer,
the windings are very tightly coupled
and voltage gain is determined by
the ratio of the numbers of turns in the windings.
This works well at normal voltages
but, at high voltages,
the insulation between the two sets of windings
is easily broken down
and this prevents iron cored transformers from
running at extremely high voltages without damage.
Unlike those of a conventional transformer
(which may couple 97%+ of the fields between windings),
a Tesla coil's windings are "loosely" coupled,
with a large air gap, and thus the primary and secondary
typically share only 10–20% of their respective magnetic fields.
Instead of a tight coupling,
the coil transfers energy (via loose coupling)
from one oscillating resonant circuit (the primary)
to the other (the secondary) over a number of RF cycles
(EM waves in the range of about 3 kHz to 300 GHz;
ELF [extreme low freq] is the bottom of that range).
Electric currents that oscillate at radio frequencies
have special properties not shared by direct current
or by alternating current of lower frequencies.
# The energy in an RF current can radiate off a conductor
into space as electromagnetic waves (radio waves);
this is the basis of radio technology.
# RF current does not penetrate deeply
into electrical conductors
but tends to flow along their surfaces;
this is known as the skin effect.
# RF current can easily ionize air,
and other dielectrics
creating a conductive path through it
(see electric arc welding).
# When conducted by an ordinary electric cable,
RF current has a tendency to reflect from
discontinuities in the cable such as connectors
and travel back down the cable toward the source,
causing a condition called standing waves,
so RF current must be carried by specialized types of cable
called transmission line.
. a resonant circuit 
is a inductor(coil) in series or parallel
with a capacitor (a gap in the circuit
using 2 plates for a large surface area)
in which both components
have reactances of equal magnitude.
. resonant circuits are used either for
generating signals at a particular frequency,
or picking out a signal at a particular frequency
from a more complex signal.
They are key components in radio equipment,
used in circuits such as oscillators, filters,
tuners and frequency mixers.
. the resonant frequency of the LC circuit
as radians per sec, is 1/(LC)^(1/2) .
. hertz = radians /2pi .

Gertsenshtein effect

10: web.phy/scalar EM/Gertsenshtein effect:
0909.4118
Unlike pure inverse Gertsenshtein effect (G-effect)
caused by the HFGWs in the GHz band,
the the electromagnetic (EM) detecting scheme (EDS)
proposed by China, and the US HFGW groups,
is based on the composite effect of the
synchro-resonance effect and the inverse G-effect.
Key parameters in the scheme include
first-order perturbative photon flux (PPF)
and not the second-order PPF;
the distinguishable signal is the
transverse first-order PPF
and not the longitudinal PPF;
the photon flux focused by the fractal membranes
or other equivalent microwave lenses
is not only the transverse first-order PPF
but the total transverse photon flux,
and these photon fluxes have different signal-to-noise ratios
at the different receiving surfaces.
Louisiana State University:
. gravitational waves propagate inside superconductors
with a phase velocity reduction of ~300 times
and a wavenumber increase of ~300 times.
This result has major significance for the
propagation of gravitational waves.
It is shown here that
one important consequence may be regarded as
a considerably enhanced Gertsenshtein effect
for very-high-frequency gravitational waves
within type-II superconductors.
This arises because type-II superconductors
do not always completely expel large magnetic fields;
above their lower critical field:
they allow vortices of magnetic flux
to channel the magnetic field through the material.
Within these vortices,
the superconducting order parameter reduces to zero
and so the material has properties approaching those of
normal material or non-superconductor.
Varying the applied magnetic field
varies the proportion of material that is normal,
which consequently affects the propagation speed of
very-high-frequency gravitational waves
through a type-II superconductor.

11: web:

The Li-Baker HFRGW Detector
The Li-Baker HFGW detector was invented by R. M L Baker, Jr.
of GravWave®LLC and patented.
Based upon the theory of Li, Tang and Zhao (1992)
termed the Li-effect,
the detector was proposed by Baker during the period 1999-2000,
a patent for it was filed in P. R. China in 2001,
subsequently granted in 2007,
and preliminary details were published later by
Baker, Stephenson and Li (2008).
The Li-Effect, the theoretical basis for the Li-Baker detector,
was first published in 1992 and subsequently,
some ten peer-reviewed papers have been published concerning it
(Li and Tang (1997), Li et al. (2000), Li and Yang (2004),
Baker and Li (2005), Baker, Li and Li (2006),
Baker, Woods and Li (2006), Li and Baker (2007),
Li, Baker and Fang (2007),
Baker, Stephenson and Li (2008), and Li et al. (2008)).
The capstone paper (Li, et al., 2008)
presents all of the technical details and is included as APPENDIX B.
The Li-Effect is very different from the classical
(inverse) Gertsenshtein Effect.
With the Li-Effect, a gravitational wave
transfers energy to a separately generated EM wave
in the presence of a static magnetic field.
That EM wave has the same frequency as the GW
and moves in the same direction.
This is the “synchro-resonance condition,”
in which the EM and GW waves are synchronized
(move in the same direction and have the same frequency)
The result of the intersection of the
parallel and superimposed EM and GW beams,
according to the Li-Effect,
is a set of new EM photons
moving off in a direction perpendicular to
the beams and the magnetic field direction.
Thus, these new photons occupy
a separate region of space (see Fig.6)
that can be made essentially noise-free
and the synchro-resonance EM beam itself
(in this case a Gaussian beam) is not sensed there,
so it does not interfere with detection of the photons.
.
The synchro-resonance solution of Einstein's field equations
(Li, Baker, Fang, Stephenson and Chen, 2008 pp. 411 to 413)
is radically different from the Gertsenshtein (1962) effect.
The newer Li-Effect solution also uses
coupling between EM and gravitational waves (Li, Tang and Zhao, 1992)
that arises according to the theory of relativity.
[keep in mind that Einstein appears to have had
2 competing theories: general relativity was
a geometry interpretation of gravity,
whereas special relativity dealt with fields ]
And a strong static magnetic field in the y-direction, B,
is superimposed upon a GW propagating in the z-direction,
as in the inverse Gertsenshtein effect.
However, with the Li-Effect,
there is an additional focused microwave beam ("Gaussian beam")
at the expected frequency, phase and bandwidth of the HFGWs
in the same direction (z) as the GW (as shown in Fig. 6).
Unlike the Gertsenshtein effect,
a first-order perturbative photon flux (PPF),
comprising the detection photons,
will be generated in the x-direction.
Since there is a 90 degree shift in direction,
there is little crosstalk between the PPF
and the superimposed EM wave (Gaussian beam),
so the PPF signal can be isolated
and distinguished from the effects of the Gaussian beam,
enabling detection of the GW.
Here’s how it works:
1.
The perturbative photon flux (PPF),
which signals the detection of a passing gravitational wave (GW),
is generated when the two waves (EM and GW)
have the same frequency, direction and phase.
This situation is termed "synchro-resonance".
These PPF detection photons are generated
as the EM wave propagates along its z-axis path,
which is also the path of the GWs .
2.
The magnetic field is in the y-direction.
According to the Li-Effect,
the PPF detection photon flux (also called "the Poynting Vector")
moves out along the x-axis in both directions.
3.
The signal (the PPF) and the noise,
or background photon flux (BPF) from the Gaussian beam
have very different physical behaviors.
The BPF (background noise photons)
are from the synchro-resonant EM Gaussian beam
and move in the z-direction,
whereas the PPF (signal photons)
move out in the x-direction along the x-axis.
4.
The PPF signal can be intercepted by
electromagnetic-interference-shielded microwave receivers
located on the x-axis (isolated from the
synchro-resonance Gaussian EM field,
which is along the z-axis).
In addition,
isolation is further improved by
cooling the microwave receiver apparatus
to reduce thermal noise background.
The resultant efficiency of detection of HFRGWs
is very much greater than from the
inverse Gertsenshtein effect,
which has been exploited in some previously proposed HFGW detectors.
The proposed novel Li-Baker detection system
is shown in Fig. 4.
The detector is sensitive to HFRGWs directed along the +z-axis,
and the precise geometrical arrangement of the major components
around this axis is the key to its operation .
The detector, shown in Fig. 7, has five major components.:
1.
A Gaussian (focused, with minimal side lobes)
microwave beam (GB)
is aimed along the +z-axis
at the same frequency as the intended HFGW signal
to be detected (Yariv, 1975), typically in the GHz band,
and also aligned in the same direction as
the HFGW to be detected.
The microwave transmitter’s horn antenna is not shown,
but would be located on the –z axis.
2.
A static magnetic field B,
generated by two powerful magnets
(typically using powerful superconductor magnets
such as those found in a conventional MRI medical body scanner),
is directed along the y-axis.
3.
Two paraboloid-shaped reflectors,
which are formed from "fractal membranes"
(Wen et al., 2002; Zhou et al., 2003; Hou et al., 2005),
are located in the y-z plane at the origin of the coordinate system
to aim and focus the detection photons
at diffraction-limited spot antennas
connected to two microwave receivers.
These reflectors are segmented (similar to a Fresnel lens)
and located back-to-back in the y-z plane.
They are thin enough (less than a centimeter thick in the x-direction)
to not block the z-directed Gaussian beam.
These microwave reflectors reflect the x-directed detection photons (PPF)
and reject the z-directed Gaussian-beam photons,
which move parallel to the surface of
the reflectors in the y-z plane.
4.
High-sensitivity shielded microwave receivers
are located at each end of the x-axis.
5.
Interior noise from thermal photon generation
is eliminated by cooling the Li-Baker detection apparatus
to below ~48 mK (0.048 Kelvin).
There are effectively no thermal photons at 10 GHz.
Noise from the interior background photon flux (BPF)
from the EM Gaussian beam
is reduced to a negligible level
by moving the receivers out to the side
about a meter away from the EM beam
and by a series of superconductor
or microwave absorbent baffles to “shade” the receivers.
Stray EM resulting from scattering of particulate matter
near the apparatus and possible dielectric dissipation
can be effectively suppressed by
evacuating the apparatus to about 7.5x10-7 Torr
(a rather high vacuum).
External noise is eliminated by the use of a
steel and titanium cryogenic containment vessel
surrounding the low-temperature Li-Baker detection apparatus.
Baker, R. M L, Jr., Stephenson, G. V. and Li, F. (2008),
“Proposed Ultra-High Sensitivity HFGW Detector,”
after peer review published in the
proceedings of Space Technology and Applications International Forum
 (STAIF- 2008), edited by M.S. El-Genk, American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, Melville, NY 969, pp. 1045-1054..
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“Implications for the Cosmological Landscape:
Can Thermal Inputs from a Prior Universe
Account for Relic Graviton Production?”
in the proceedings of Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF-2008),
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“Relic High Frequency Gravitational Waves, Neutrino Physics, and Icecube,”
After Peer Review, Accepted for Publication in the
Proceedings of the Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), 24-27 February,
Edited by Glen Robertson.
(Paper 003), American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings,
Melville, NY 1103, pp. 564- 570.
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“Relic High Frequency Gravitational Waves from the Big Bang and How to Detect Them,”
After Peer Review, Accepted for Publication in the Proceedings of the Space,
Propulsion and Energy Sciences International Forum (SPESIF), 24-27 February, Edited by Glen
Robertson. (Paper 031), American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, Melville, NY 1103, p. 571.
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Class. Quantum Grav. 22, 5479-5481.
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Gravitational Wave Advanced Detector Workshop (GWADW),
Elba Conference, 17 May, slide presentation 132.
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in the proceedings of the HFGW2 Workshop, Institute Austin (IASA), Texas, September 19-21;
http://earthtech.org/hfgw2/, accessed 11/06/08.
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Proceedings of the School, Eds. I. Ciufolini and R. Matzner, (in press) Springer 2008,
arXiv:0707.3319v3
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PhD Thesis, The University of Birmingham, January.
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--
Andrew Beckwith1,2 and Robert M L Baker, Jr 2.
1) AIBEP.ORG (Life member)
2) GravWave® LLC
beckwith@aibep.org,
abeckwith@uh.edu
DrRobertBaker@GravWave.com

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
THE SEVENTH ANNUAL AIAA SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AEROSPACE SYSTEMS 
AND TECHNOWLOGY (ASAT) CONFERENCE
UTILIZATION OF HIGH-FREQUENCY GRAVITATIONAL WAVES
FOR AEROSPACE SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY*
by Robert M L Baker, Jr., Ph.D. AIAA Associate Fellow May 1, 2010
Gertsenshtein (1962) established theoretically that
an EM wave in the presence of a [electrostatic] magnetic field
would generate a gravitational wave (GW)
and also hypothesized an “inverse Gertsenshtein effect,”
in which GWs generate EM photons.
The JASON report (Eardley, 2008) confuses the two effects
and erroneously suggests that the Li-Baker HFGW Detector
utilizes the inverse Gertsenshtein effect.
It does not and does have a sensitivity that is
about A/A^2 = 10^30 greater than
that incorrectly assumed in the JASON report.
.
see HFGW Communication,'
see generation of HFGWs
.
brief of HFGW generation:
The generation of HFGWs in the laboratory
or the HFGW transmitter is based upon
the well-known astrodynamic gravitational-wave generation process
(Landau, L. D. and Lifshitz, E. M. (1975),
The Classical Theory of Fields,
Fourth Revised English Edition, Pergamon Press, pp. 348, 349, 355-357.
)
[ Fig.1.1.2 is showing A, B, A', B'
in orbit(radius r) about the x-z plane,
and then gwaves are going along the z-axis;
then Δf is a vector tangent to the orbit
coming from A` and B`
]
In Fig.1.1.2 is shown the gravitational wave (GW) radiation pattern
for orbiting masses in a single orbit plane
where f#cf is the centrifugal force
and Δ f#cf is the change in centrifugal force,
acting in opposite directions,
at masses A and B..
Next consider a number N of such orbit planes
stacked one on top of another
again with the GW radiation flux (Wm^-2)
growing as the GW moves up the axis of the N orbit planes
as in Fig. 1.1.3 .
We now replace the stack of orbital planes
by a stack of N HFGW-generation elements.
These elements could be
pairs of laser targets (Baker, Li and Li, 2006),
gas molecules (Woods and Baker, 2009),
piezoelectric crystal pairs
(Romero-Borja and Dehnen, 1981;
Dehnen and Romero-Borja, 2003)
or film-bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) pairs,
which also are composed of piezoelectric crystals
(Woods and Baker, 2005).
Since they can be obtained “off the shelf”
we select the FBAR alternative.
Thus we now have a HFGW wave moving
up the centerline of the FBAR-pair tracks,
as shown in Fig. 1 of Baker (2009).
Note that FBARs are ubiquitous
and are utilized in cell phones, radios
and other commonly used electronic devices
and that they can be energized by
conventional Magnetrons found in Microwave Ovens.
.
The HFGW flux, Wm^-2, or signal
increases in proportion to the square of
the number HFGW-generation elements,
N that is “Superradiance” (Scully and Svidzinsky, 2009).
The N2 build up is attributed to two effects:
one N from there being N HFGW power sources or generation elements
and the other N from the narrowing of the beam
so that the HFGW is more concentrated
and the flux (Wm^-2) thereby increased
(Romero-Borja and Dehnen, 1981;
Dehnen and Romero-Borja, 2003).
Note that it is not necessary to have the FBAR tracks perfectly aligned
(that is the FBARs exactly across from each other)
since it is only necessary that the energizing wave front
(from Magnetrons in the case of the FBARs
as in Baker, Woods and Li (2006))
reaches a couple of nearly opposite FBARs at the same time.
The HFGW beam is very narrow,
usually less than 10^-4 radians (Baker and Black, 2009)
and increasing N narrows the beam.
Additionally multiple HFGW carrier frequencies can be used,
so the signal is very difficult to intercept
by US military adversaries,
and is therefore useful as a
low-probability-of-intercept (LPI) signal,
even with widespread adoption of the technology.
.... .
[2014.1.9: that paper goes on to explain how GravWaves
can be used for propulsion and underground surveillance: ]
. ... gravitational waves, including HFGWs,
pass through most material with little or no attenuation;
but although they are not absorbed,
their characteristics can be modified variously
as they pass through different textures and internal structures.
--- polarization, phase, backscatter, and velocity
 (causing refraction or bending of gravitational rays)... .
.
HFGWs could theoretically be used for propulsion
 (Patent Applied for, Baker, 2007b)
 Gravitational field changes, suggested originally by
two famous  Russian GR experts (Landau and Lifshitz, 1975),
caused by one or more HFGW generators
could cause lower or higher static gravitational fields .
. in the 1970s and 1980s the Russians reported research on
the generation of such HFGWs
(e.g., Grishchuk and Sazhin, 1974;
Grishchuk, 1977; Braginsky and Rudenko, 1978),
but their efforts were terminated at the end of the Cold War.
The magnitude of the static g-field is proportional to the
square of the HFGW frequency
(according to Landau and Lifshitz, 1975)
 and is described in Baker (2007b).
Baker, R. M L, Jr. (2007a),
“Surveillance Applications of High-Frequency Gravitational Waves,
 after per review accepted for publication in the Proceedings of
 Space Technology and Applications International Forum
(STAIF-2007), edited by M.S. El-Genk,
American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings,
Melville, NY 880, pp.1017-1026.
Baker, R. M L, Jr. (2007b)
United States Patent Application Number 11/173,080,
“Gravitational Wave Propulsion,”  Publication Date, January 4.
Braginsky, V. B. and Rudenko, V. N., (1978),
“Gravitational waves and the detection of gravitational  radiation,”
Section 7: “Generation of gravitational waves in the laboratory,”
Physics Report  (Review section of Physics Letters),
46, Number 5, pp. 165-200.
Landau, L. D. and Lifshitz, E. M. (1975),
The Classical Theory of Fields, Fourth Revised English Edition,
Pergamon Press, pp. 348, 349, 355-357.
Gertsenshtein, M.E. (1962)
“Wave resonance of light and gravitational waves,”
Sov. Phys. JETP 14, pp. 84-85.
Grishchuk, L.P. and Sazhin M.V. (1973),
“Emission of gravitational waves by an electromagnetic cavity,”
Sov. Phys. JETP 38 215-221, 1974
(original ZETF 65 441-454, 1973)
Grishchuk L.P. (1977),
“Gravitational waves in the cosmos and the laboratory,”
Sov. Phys. Usp. 20 319-334, 1977
(original Usp. Fiz. Nauk 121 629-656, 1977);
Grishchuk L.P., “Graviton creation in the early universe,”
Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 302 439-444.
Grishchuk, L.P. (2006),
Relic gravitational waves and cosmology,
Proc. Int. Conf. Cosmology and High-Energy
Astrophysics “Zeldovich-90,” Moscow, Russia,;
Grishchuk, L.P. (2007),
“High-frequency relic gravitational waves,
 their detection and new approaches,”
Proc. 2nd HFGW Workshop, IASA Austin, Texas, 2007;