2013-12-26

magnesium threonate

12.26: web.health/magnesium threonate
. from my own experience with mg-threonate,
using 2g providing 144mg magnesium,
it rather cut through the caffeine:
my relaxed mind was less concentrated,
and dialated bronchioles became less so;
but at a time when I was becoming
too antsy to sit still for concentrating,
this was definitely calming .
. it also reduces anx in the head,
but without reducing butterflies in stomach .

animal model studies:

Enhancement of Learning and Memory 
by Elevating Brain Magnesium. 
[ Neuron, 2010 (full article)
. brain magnesium was increased by
magnesium-L-threonate, MgT;
and that leads to the enhancement of
learning abilities,working memory,
and short- and long-term memory in rats.
Elevation of brain magnesium increased
NR2B, NMDAR signaling, and synaptic plasticity
Elevation of brain magnesium increased
number of presynaptic boutons in hippocampus
The pattern completion ability
was also improved in aged rats.
. MgT-treated rats had higher density of
synaptophysin-/synaptobrevin-positive puncta
in DG and CA1 subregions of hippocampus
that were correlated with memory improvement.
Functionally, magnesium increased the number of
functional presynaptic release sites,
while it reduced their release probability.
The resultant synaptic reconfiguration
enabled selective enhancement of
synaptic transmission for burst inputs.
Coupled with concurrent upregulation of
NR2B-containing NMDA receptors
and its downstream signaling,
synaptic plasticity induced by correlated inputs
was enhanced. 
explains Dr. Liu:
. it is difficult to boost brain magnesium levels
with traditional oral supplements,
so, Dr. Liu and colleagues developed
a new magnesium compound,
magnesium-L-threonate (MgT)
that could significantly increase magnesium
in the brain via dietary supplementation.
"We found that increased brain magnesium
enhanced many different forms of
learning and memory
in both young and aged rats".
A close examination of
cellular changes associated with memory
revealed an increase in the number of
functional synapses,
activation of key signaling molecules
and an enhancement of
short- and long-term synaptic processes
that are crucial for learning and memory.
"Our findings suggest that elevating brain magnesium
might be a useful new strategy to
enhance cognitive abilities".
Journal of Neuroscience 2011
Anxiety disorders often resist therapy,
which justifies the search for cognitive enhancers
that might augment the efficacy of cognitive therapy.
. conditioned fear memories and responses
are believed to be formed by the amygdala,
while fear expression is modulated adaptively
by other brain regions such as the
prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus .
. after the extinction of conditioned fear,
the ventromedial prefrontal cortex
is believed to retain the extinction memory .
Studies suggest that enhancement of plasticity
in regions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC)
and/or hippocampus
might enhance the efficacy of cognitive therapy.
. we show that MgT treatment enhances retention of
the memory of extinction of fear,
In intact animals, elevation of brain magnesium
increased NMDA receptor signaling,
BDNF expression,
density of presynaptic puncta,
and synaptic plasticity in the PFC
but, interestingly, not in
the basolateral amygdala.
In vitro,
elevation of extracellular magnesium concentration
increased synaptic NMDA receptor current
and plasticity in the infralimbic PFC,
but not in the lateral amygdala,
suggesting a difference in their sensitivity to
elevation of brain magnesium. 
Pain Physician. 2013 
Magnesium L-threonate prevents and restores
memory deficits associated with
neuropathic pain by inhibition of TNF-α.
. oral application of MgT was able to
prevent and restore the short-term memory deficits
in an animal model of chronic neuropathic pain
by reversing the dysfunction of the NMDA receptor,
and normalization of TNF-α expression;
but the causal relationship remains elusive. 

human experiences 

soaking in epson salts does the same thing?:
. there is NO conclusive scientific evidence
that demonstrates MAGNESIUM L-THREONATE
has ANY superiority whatsoever over
transdermally applied MAGNESIUM SULFATE .
( soaking for 12+ minutes in a hot bath
containing 1-2 cups ESPOM SALTS ).
. MAGNESIUM L-THREONATE increases
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF) LEVELS of MAGNESIUM
by 7% - 15% relative to baseline,
which is in fact no more than
transdermal MAGNESIUM SULFATE.
. MALATE, GLYCINATE, or THREONATE
are good oral forms;
(AVOID the OXIDE, CHLORIDE and CITRATE forms).
. its primary mechanism of action is that of
NMDA RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST .
Lufega's response 2012:
 I have also had IV infusions of magnesium sulfate.
I can tell you from experience that
this produces no noticeable cognitive or
even sedative effect on the brain.
However, very small doses (less than 500 mg)
of magnesium threonate
do produce a noticeable effect, consistently.
Higher doses work even better
Aerosolized magnesium sulfate for acute asthma:
a systematic review.
. efficacy of IV MgSO(4) has been shown
for exacerbations of asthma;
. inhaled or nebulized MgSO(4),
particularly in addition to a beta(2)-agonist,
appears to produce benefits with respect to
improved pulmonary function during asthma
and may reduce the number of hospital admissions.
BMC Neuroscience 2008, 9(Suppl 3):S5
Intranasal delivery provides a practical,
non-invasive method of bypassing
the blood-brain barrier (BBB)
to deliver therapeutic agents
to the brain and spinal cord.
. drugs that do not cross the BBB
can be delivered within minutes
to the central nervous system .
because of the unique connections
provided by the olfactory and trigeminal nerves
between the brain and external environment. 
Limitations:
# Delivery is expected to decrease with
increasing molecular weight of drug
# Some inhaled agents are susceptible to
partial degradation in the nasal mucosa
# some cause too much irritation;
# Nasal congestion may interfere with
this method of delivery
# Frequent use of this route results in
being prone to nasal infection,
or a loss of ability to smell .