choline during 3rd trimester reduces cortisol levels:
The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology,
first human study to suggest
a role for choline
in the "programming" of
key biological processes in the fetus .
. a group of third-trimester pregnancies
consumed 930 milligrams of choline,
more than double the recommended
450 milligram daily intake.
The result for their babies was a
33 % lower concentration of cortisol
- a hormone produced in response to stress
that also increases blood sugar -
compared to those from a control group of women
who consumed about 480 milligrams of choline.
Dietary sources of choline include egg yolks,
beef, pork, chicken, milk, legumes and some vegetables.
Most prenatal vitamin supplements
do not include choline.