2012-12-24

Islam's 5 pillars

[. here I organized everything around the five,
then added the way other sects do,
unless I saw them as fitting within the 5,
eg, cleanliness rituals are similar to
prayer (cleanliness of mind);]


10.29: web.relig/islam 5 pillars
(including 7 pillars of Ismailism)

The Five Pillars of Islam
(arkān-al-Islām أركان الإسلام;
also arkān ad-dīn أركان الدين
"pillars of the religion")
are five basic obligatory acts in Islam,
and are the foundation of Muslim life.
The Qur'an presents them as a framework for worship
and a sign of commitment to the faith.
The minority Shi'a and majority Sunni
both agree on the essential details for these performances,
but organize them differently:
# Ancillaries of the Faith of Twelver Shi'a
# Seven pillars of Ismailism .
Shi'a Ismāʻīlī - the Nizari, Druze and Mustaali
- have Pillars beyond those of the Sunni.
The Shahadah (profession of faith),
is not considered a Pillar
and is instead seen as the
foundation upon which they are built.
. the Shia faith believe the 6th pillar is khomes
which means that you have to pay 1/5 of your wealth
to the poor and needy,
unlike some Sunni minorities
such as the Taliban and Al Qaeda,
identifying those groups as sharing the Kharijite view
that jihad is the sixth pillar of Islam,
and unlike renewalist groups
such as Islamic Jihad and Hamas,
which are described as not sharing that view.
requirements of all rolled into 5 pillars
1:    the shahada (Islamic creed)
Shahada is the declaration of faith,
i.e. the professing that there is
only one God (Allah) (monotheism)
and that Muhammad is God's messenger.
Kalima is normally recited in Arabic:
'La 'ilaa-ha 'il-lal-laa-hu mu-ham-ma-dur ra-soo-lul-laah
"I bear witness that there is
none worthy of worship except Allah
and Muhammad is His Servant and Messenger."
-- this is part of the required daily prayer (salāh);
it is also a key part in a person's conversion to Islam.
Taslīm "Submission"
denotes love and devotion to God, the prophets,
the Imām (al-Hakīm) and the du‘āt "missionaries".
In Ismā‘īlī doctrine,
God is the true desire of every soul,
and he manifests himself
in the forms of prophets and imāms;
the appointed du‘āt lead believers to the right path.
Walayah “Guardianship” denotes love and devotion to
God, the prophets, the imām and the duʻāt "miassionaries".
In Ismāʻīlī doctrine,
God is the true desire of every soul,
and he manifests himself in the forms of
prophets and imāms;
the appointed duʻāt lead believers to the right path.
The Druze refer to this pillar as Taslīm "Submission".
Tark ‘Ibādat al-Awthān "Deserting Idol-Worship":
The Druze emphasise the esoteric meaning of the
traditional pillar called sawm,[fasting]
by which they mean that which detracts from
communion with God is an idol (wathan).

2:    daily prayers (salat)
aka Jihad major "the Greater Struggle":
[the inner struggle]
prayers are recited while facing the Kaaba in Mecca.
Muslims must wash themselves before prayer,
this washing is called wudū' ("purification").
Fajr (morning dawn, before sunrise),
Zuhr (noon, sun has surpassed its highest),
Asr (afternoon, before sunset),
Maghrib (after-sunset),
and 'Isha' (late evening, night).
Salah "Prayer": Unlike Sunni and Twelver Muslims,
Nizari Ismāʻīliyya prayers
are designed by the current imām
and for this reason
the current Nizari practices resemble dua
and pray them three times a day.
These three times have been related with
the three mentioned in the Qur'an:
sunrise, before sunset, and after sunset.
In contrast, the Mustaʻlī maintain five prayers
and their style is generally closely related to
that of the Twelvers.
The Druze believe that the meaning of prayer
is sidqu l-lisān "speaking Truth (to/about God)"
and do not believe in five daily prayers.
They do sometimes attend prayers,
which is the practice of the "uninitiated" (juhhāl)
and historically was also done for reasons of taqiyya.
Taharah "Purity":
The Ismā'īlī lay special emphasis on
purity and it's related practices.
While the Nizari consider this in a more esoteric sense
and apply it to purity of mind, soul and action,
the Musta'lis also apply it to ritual practices
related to prayer and cleanliness.

3:    almsgiving (zakāt) aka Jihad minor
ease economic hardship for others and eliminate inequality
Commanding what is just and Forbidding what is evil.
  give 2.5% of wealth in most portable form possible:
money or else services
for the benefit of poor, slaves, debtors and travelers .
Twelver Shia Islam Zakat,  similar to Sunni Islam,
but only applies to cattle, silver, gold,
dates, raisins, wheat, and barley.
Twelver Shia Islam Khums:
an annual taxation of one-fifth of all gain;
paid to the Imams or to poor sayyids (descendants of Ahl al-bayt).
Jihad minor "The Lesser Struggle":
[struggle with the world]

means confronting the enemies of the faith;
[ but I include this under almsgiving
because, as a believer, you are sharing your
gifts of the spirit which include
willpower, experience, and insight
-- all needed in order to find relief from
the bonds of cyclic poverty .]
Twelver Shia Islam Tabarra:
 disassociation with those who oppose God
 and those who caused harm to Muhammad or his family.
The Nizari are pacifist and avoid provocation
and use force only as a final resort only in self-defense.
they and interpret "adversaries" of the faith
as personal and social vices (i.e. wrath, intolerance, etc.)
and those individuals who harm the peace of the faith .
The Druze have a long history of
military and political engagement,
but refer to this pillar solely as
Rīda "Contentment"
- the war to fight that which removes you from
the ease of the Divine Presence,
a meaning similar to that of the Nizari.
In addition, the ʻUqqāl "Wise Ones",
the religious cadre of the Druze, are pacifists.
 Hifzu l-Ikhwān "Protection of One's Brothers":
Zakah "Charity":
with the exception of the Druze,
who practice interdependence
instead of a set fee to a religious leader;
all Ismāʻīlī madhāhab have practices resembling
that of Sunni and Twelver Muslims
with the addition of the characteristic
Shīʻa khums:
payment of 1/8th of one's unspent money
at the end of the year to the imām.
In addition to khums,
Ismāʻīlīs pay to the imām
12.5% of their monthly gross income
which goes to the central accounts
and then spent on welfare of the humankind
like education and health projects.
One of the major examples of these projects
is the Aga Khan Development Network,
that is one of the biggest welfare networks of the world.
Thus, Ismāʻīlīs believe that
as Prophet Muhammad was designated to
take zakāt from the believers in the past,
it is now the duty to pay the imām or his representative.
The Druze practice hifzu l-'Ikhwān
"Protection of One's Brothers" instead of paying a fee,
a culturally complex practice of interdependence.

4:    fasting during Ramadan (sawm)
. during the month of Ramadan,
Ritual fasting is obligatory;
In the terminology of Islamic law,
sawm means to abstain during dawn to dusk
from eating, drinking (including water)
and are to be especially mindful of other sins
(ie, smoking,  cursing, thinking evil,
and having sexual intercourse)
Nizari and Mustaʻlī believe in both
a metaphorical and literal meaning of fasting.
The literal meaning is the Ramadan
and the metaphorical meaning is
attainment of the Divine Truth
and striving to avoid the worldy activities
which may detract from this goal.
In particular, Ismāʻīlīs believe
the real and esoteric meaning of fasting
is avoiding the devilish acts
and doing the good deeds.
The Druze emphasise the esoteric meaning,
which they call tark ʻibādat al-awthān
"deserting idol-worship":
that which detracts from communion with God
is an idol (wathan).
5: the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj)
at least once in a lifetime.

Twelver Shia Islam Tawalla:
expressing love towards Muhammad's family, Ahl al-Bayt.
There are two pilgrimages:
Hajj-i-Zahiri and Hajj-i-Batini the first is the visit to Mecca,
the second, being in the presence of the Imam.
For Ismāʻīlīs, visiting the imām or his representative
is one of the most aspired pilgrimages.
The Mustaʻlī maintain also
the practice of going to Mecca.
The Druze interpret this metaphorically
as "chasing away devils and oppressors"
and rarely go to Mecca.

According to Twelver doctrine,
what is referred to as pillars by Sunni Islam
are called the practices or secondary principles.
There are three additional practices.
The first is jihad,
which is also important to the Sunni, but not considered a pillar.
The second is Commanding what is just
which calls for every Muslim to live a virtuous life
and to encourage others to do the same.
The third is Forbidding what is evil
which tells Muslims to refrain from vice
and to encourage others to do the same.
Twelvers have five Principles of the Religion
which relates to Aqidah.
. Hajj
is one of the largest pilgrimages in the world,
and is the fifth pillar of Islam,
a religious duty that must be carried out
at least once in their lifetime
by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so.
The Hajj is a demonstration of the
solidarity of the Muslim people,
and their submission to Allah
pilgrimage occurs from the 8th to 12th day of Dhu al-Hijjah,
the 12th and last month of the Islamic calendar.
-- eleven days shorter than the Gregorian calendar
. Muhammad's Hajj was in the month of Ramadan
known for being the 9th month of their lunar calender,
and the month the Qur'an was revealed .
. the actual point in the region's season
was (nov 29 ... dec 11)
-- saudia arabia's chilliest (15..30C, 59...86F) and most humid (40%).
. the islamic months shift about every 2 years .
Muhammad's Hajj:
. in order to restore order
after violation of a peace treaty
between the Meccan tribe of Quraysh
and the Muslim community in Medina,
on Wednesday, November 29, 629
(the 6th of Ramadan, 8 hijra)
Muhammad led the counter-assault;
they entered Mecca on Monday, December 11, 629
(18th of Ramadan 8 hijrah).
. it was the first Hajj to be performed by Muslims alone,
and the only Hajj ever performed by Muhammad.
He cleansed the Kaaba, destroyed all the idols,
and re-ordained the building as the house of God.

It was from this point that the Hajj became
one of the Five Pillars of Islam.
. for early pilgrims,
performing Hajj was a hazardous journey;
Hajj is based on a pilgrimage that was ancient
even in the time of Muhammad in the 7th century.

According to Hadith,
elements of the Hajj trace back to
Abraham (Ibrahim), 2000 BCE:
Abraham's wife, Sarah, was unable to conceive,
and upon her request,
Abraham had taken as a second wife
their female servant, H(Hājar),
who bore Abraham a son (ʼIsmāʻīl).
. after Abraham was ordered by God to
leave H and baby alone in the desert.
H ran with baby, back and forth 7 times
between the hills of Safa and Marwa,
looking for shelter, food and water .
In desperation, she set the baby down
and begged for God's assistance;
and from the place where baby's heel struck
the Zamzam Well miraculously sprang forth.


When the pilgrims are positioned
10 km (6.2 mi) from Mecca,
they must dress in Ihram clothing:
A place designated for changing into Ihram
is called a miqat .
. it is meant to show that all pilgrims,
are equal in front of God:
there is no difference
between a prince and a pauper.
Ihram is also symbolic for holy virtue
and pardon from all past sins.
Women are simply required to maintain their
hijab —normal modest dress,
which does not cover the hands or face.
.  male pilgrims are required to
dress only in the ihram,
a garment consisting of
two sheets of white unhemmed cloth,
with the top draped over the torso
and the bottom secured by a white sash;
not covering the head or hands,
plus a pair of sandals (or shoes not over the ankles).
. they may not shave, clip their nails, wear perfume,
swear or quarrel, have sexual relations,
marry, or carry weapons.
. one may not uproot or damage plants,
nor kill or harm wild animals .