2012-05-10

caveats to prunes preventing osteoporosis #health #osteo

4.5: health/prunes
5.3, 5.4: summary:
. prunes (dried plums) have a dramatic effect on bone growth,
primarily by  [my inference]
increasing parathyroid hormone (PTH)
but prunes also raise IGF-I (insulin-like growth factors)
which increases the risk of cancer .
. plums also have a special sugar, sorbitol,
that enhances calcium absorption
or increases bone metabolism;
but, plums also have a high infammatory index,
due to the sheer quantity of their total sugars;
the plum's sorbitol may reduce bone resorption,
but this is better done with xylitol .
. other ways dried plums can help bones
is their generous serving of boron and vitamin K; [5.9:
but again, there are better sources:
while boron is required by plums,
it seems likely that the prune's boron levels
would depend on how much is in the soil;
therefore, supplements would be a safer bet .
. by far the best sources of vitamin K
are the dark green leafies .]

. a better strategy for bone growth
is to make sure your diet is avoiding growth inhibitors:
bones need IGF sensitivity,
which in turn needs both load-bearing exercise
and proper insulin sensitivity (that entails
a low-glycemic, low-cortisol diet).

. cortisol is raised by low blood sugar
(the usual reason sugar gets low is when a diet has
too many simple sugars and grains,
and then the insulin response over-reacts
which swings sugar from too high to too low).
. cortisol is also caused by chronic stress, or lack of sleep .

. lowering cortisol is the most dramatic way to
increase insulin sensitivity,
which is critical to bone growth because,
if your cell's can't hear the insulin calling,
they are also deaf to the other growth factors
(also known as anabolics); these include
GH (growth hormone),
IGF (insulin-like growth hormone),
and PTH(parathyroid hormone).
. along with using a low-glycemic diet,
cortisol can be further lowered by supplements:
the combination of arginine and lysine .

. other ways to increase insulin sensitivity include
load-bearing exercise and supplements:
magnesium, alph lipoic acid, L-carnitine, taurine, L-arginine,
chromium, coenzyme Q10, silymarin, Inula racemosa ... .

. perhaps there could be safety by cycling the IGF?
the usual diet should be low-glycemic,
and include herbs that lower IGF;
but every couple days,
take your prunes before and after bone training
(weightlifting or squats, pushups, etc).]

. the usual form of vitamin D
promotes bone resorption,
which is good for healthy bone turn-over,
but the needed rebuilding after resorption
will only happen if one is not resistant to anabolics .
 
4.5: news.health/prunes prevented osteoporosis:
. during a year-long study with 60 postmenopausal women,
not on therapy for osteoporosis.
half ate 100 grams a day of prunes (10 to 12 prunes),
while the placebo consisted of 100 grams a day of dried apple.
At the end of the study,
the bone density significantly increased in the group eating prunes.
The blood markers of bone breakdown
also were significantly lower in the prune group.
5.3: web, news: maybe has boron, may be explosive:

Chemical composition and potential health effects
of prunes: a functional food?

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2001 May;41(4):251-86.
. the laxative action of both prune and prune juice
could be explained by their high sorbitol content
(14.7 and 6.1 g/100 g, respectively).
Prunes contain large amounts of phenolic compounds (184 mg/100 g),
mainly as neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids,
which may aid in the laxative action and delay glucose absorption.
Phenolic compounds in prunes
had been found to inhibit
human LDL oxidation in vitro,
[but sugars are the main cause of
bad cholesterol ratios
and the prune is quite sugary .]
Dried prunes are an important source of
boron,
which is postulated to play a role in
prevention of osteoporosis.

A serving of prunes (100 g)
fulfills the daily requirement for boron (2 to 3 mg).
5.3: news: sorbitol generates free radicals, inflammation .

5.3: web: sorbitol's effect on bone like xylitol's:

. sorbital may be like xylitol,
in its ability to fuel bone directly
even in the presence of insulin resistance
(when glucose can't get full access).

5.4: web:
Mattila, P.T., Svanberg, M.J., Mkinen, K.K. and Knuuttila, M.L.E. 1996.
Dietary xylitol, sorbitol and D-mannitol but not erythritol
retard bone resorption in rats.

Journal of Nutrition. 126:1865-1870.
We previously showed that
10 and 20% dietary xylitol supplementations
retard bone absorption in rats
perhaps due to an increased absorption of calcium
by complexing it with sugar alcohols .
. Xylitol supplementation increases the
bone calcium concentration,
enhances calcification of previously calcium-deficient bone
and protects against bone mineral loss
after ovary removal in rats.
--[ovaries are the main source of
not only estrogen but also progesterone .]
Furthermore, the serum level of
1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [activated vitamin D],
a potent stimulator of bone resorption,
is reduced during dietary xylitol supplementation .
Interestingly, other polyols share some properties with xylitol
regarding their association with calcium.
Sorbitol and D-mannitol increase calcium absorption
and urinary calcium excretion .
. sorbitol increases the concentration of bone calcium,
although less than xylitol .
Ingested xylitol and sorbitol will increase the
cellular NADH/NAD ratio,
whereas the low oxidation rate of D-mannitol
should not elevate the cellular NADH level significantly.
The high cellular NADH/NAD ratio leads to
the suppression of the citric acid cycle,
NADH being used for energy production
through the respiratory chain .
Alterations in the cellular NADH/NAD ratio are
closely connected with the calcification process.
Increased NADH concentrations occur simultaneously with
active calcifications of the cartilage .
An increased NADH concentration is also known to promote
Ca2+ transport across the cell surface membrane and the
sarcoplasmic reticulum (Lehninger et al. 1978).
5.4: xylitol vs sorbitol:
. Xylitol is classified as a polyol or sugar alcohol .
Polyols possess functional hydroxyl groups.
It is important to note that xylitol differs from
other polyols like sorbitol:
Xylitol is a 5-carbon pentatol
whereas sorbitol is a 6-carbon hexitol.
Sorbitol, consequently, can support the growth of
cariogenic (cavity-causing) bacteria in the mouth.
However, these bacteria are unable to utilize xylitol for growth.
Consequently, xylitol use actually prevents cavities,
while other sugars promote cavities.
. sorbitol is tenaciously laxative,
whereas the body can adapt to xylitol
by increasing a polyol dehydrogenase enzyme .
xylitol for Osteoporosis
Xylitol also has potential as a treatment for osteoporosis.
A group of Finnish researchers has found dietary xylitol
prevents weakening of bones in laboratory rats,
and actually improves bone density.
[Mattila 2002] [Mattila 1999]

5.3: web, news: significant IGF-I increases:
Dried plums improve indices of
bone formation in postmenopausal women.
J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2002 Jan-Feb;11(1):61-8.
[. comparing prunes to dried apples ...]
only dried plums significantly increased
serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)
and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) activity.
Higher levels of both serum IGF-I and BSAP
are associated with greater rates of bone formation;
however, Serum and urinary markers of bone resorption,
were not affected by either dietary regimen.
[. prunes work by increasing the bone build-up
rather than decreasing the bone tear-down .]

Firstime Breast Cancer Awareness Courage Wall Clock 

 5.3: news: plums, bone growth, and cancer growth:
L. J. Foster, MD
Bone is a living tissue, constantly remodeling itself.
OsteoClasts reabsorb old bone so that
osteoBlasts can make new bone.
. an imbalance leads to weak osteopenic bone,
or even fragile oseoporotic bone.
Most pharmaceuticals act by inhibiting osteoclasts,
which leaves bone harder, but more brittle;
Prunes work by stimulating osteoblasts,
enabling them to promote new bone formation
and actually reverse osteoporosis.

. prunes are a good source of boron,
which activates vitamin D;
reduces excretion of calcium and magnesium;
and upregulates estrogen
which in turn increases calcium absorption.

polyphenols in prunes inhibit osteoclasts,
by an anti-inflammatory effect;
[however,
the sugars more than compensate,
making prunes quite pro-inflammatory .]

. prunes raise insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)
which encourages tissue growth,
but may also promote cancer growth .
This is debated, however, as some authors believe
their anti-inflammatory properties help prevent cancer.
prunes raise IGF-I?

DHEA, IGF-1, and Bone Loss Reversal
(Altern Med Rev., findarticles.com)
Both DHEA (1) and IGF-1 have been shown to
improve bone turnover markers
in women with anorexia nervosa.
IGF-1 is a nutritionally-dependent bone-synthesizing hormone
that has been shown to stimulate
osteoblast and collagen function in vivo. (2)
In a study of 23 anorexic women (aged 18-29 years),
the lowest dose of IGF-1 significantly increased
a marker of bone formation
(type I procollagen carboxyl-terminal propeptide)
and left markers of resorption unchanged.
Levels of IGF-1, which had previously been
abnormally low in all subjects,
were brought to above normal.
. DHEA may stimulate IGF-1 levels
in postmenopausal women .
1: DHEA in anorexia nervosa. 1999
2: IGF-I in anorexia nervosa; 1996

denvernaturopathic.com:
. prunes were found to increase IGF-I and BSAP activity;
High levels of both of these chemicals
are associated with faster bone formation.
Although bone breakdown didn’t change in prune eaters,
the process of making new bone increased .
This gets our attention because
the common drugs used to treat osteoporosis
focus on the other side of the equation;
they slow bone resorption.
It’s often been argued that although slowing resorption
maintains bone density measured on scans,
it leaves the bones denser but also brittle.

In 2007, Osteoporosis published a follow up study.
In this study, again using castrated rats
as an experimental model of osteoporosis,
--[ because males lose bone too,
and that loss is proportional to their
age-related losses of testosterone ]--
the benefit of eating prune extracts was compared to
the effect of parathyroid hormone.
The dried plums helped restore bone mass
but not as effectively as the parathyroid hormone (PTH).
two additional papers of interest:
The first, in the Journal of Nutrition and Biochemistry,
is titled, “Dried plum polyphenols attenuate the
detrimental effects of TNF-alpha on osteoblast function
coincident with up-regulation of Runx2, Osterix and IGF-I.”
This in vitro research began to detail the chemical explanations
as to how prune extracts exert their beneficial effects.
The second paper,
“Dried Plum Polyphenols
Inhibit Osteoclastogenesis [bone resorber activity]
by Downregulating NFATc1 and Inflammatory Mediators”
again focuses on biochemical mechanisms of action.
the IGF factor:
. while associated with greater rates of bone formation,
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is associated with
both increased risk of cancer and faster rates of cancer growth.
Dr. Ajmandi responded:
“Although IGF-I has been associated with
tumor growth and cell proliferation,
this is due to the nature of cancer cells (being selfish),
employing most growth factors to their advantage.
This is not cause and effect, rather
cancer cells up regulated the production of most growth factors
in order to grow faster.
In normal individuals this should not be the case
for instance, when we are young
we have the highest circulating levels of IGF-1
and as we age,
its levels diminish while cancer incident increases.”
Arjmandi’s view is refuted:
Even before he published his 2002 results,
the question had pretty much been settled;
elevated IGF-I increases risk of developing cancer.

the October 2000 issue of the British Medical Journal:
        ... a number of prospective studies using stored blood
        collected up to 14 years before the onset of disease
        have shown associations between IGF-I
        and cancers of prostate premenopausal breast, and colon ...
        The risk of cancer is higher among people with
        raised concentrations of IGF-I,
        and it is lower among those with
        high concentrations of IGF binding protein-3
        [the main inactivator of IGF].
        The associations are similar when people whose
        blood samples were taken soon before diagnosis
        are excluded from analyses,
        suggesting that the observed relations are not due to
        the release of the growth factor by preclinical cancers, ... .
The writers point out that in acromegaly,
where high GH stimulates high IGF-I,
there is an increased risk of cancers
of the breast, prostate, thyroid, and blood .

It may be that high levels of IGF-I early in life
are what triggers cancer later in life.
Caloric restriction in early childhood
both lowers IGF-I and cancer risk.
Thus our ‘prune worry’ may not be important for adults.

Unfortunately there are other factors
that may link IGF-I to cancer:
        “IGF-I's anti-apoptotic activity
        might increase the risk of cancer;
        ie, by preventing [cancer cell suicides .]
In other words high IGF-I levels would
hinder the body’s ability to ‘prune’ away
pre-cancerous cells as they develop;
and, this risk would not be limited to childhood.

Many of the plant extracts used for
preventing or treating cancer
have a pronounced inhibiting effect on IGF-I.
Resveratrol, soy and tea extracts, curcumin, and quercetin
all lower IGF-I.
Milk thistle and lycopene
both increase IGF binding proteins,
thereby decreasing IGF activity . 
Prunes, it seems, do the opposite.
[5.9:
. perhaps there could be safety by cycling the IGF?
the usual diet should be low-glycemic,
and include herbs that lower IGF;
but every couple days,
take your prunes before and after bone training
(weightlifting or squats, pushups, etc ).]

5.3: web, news: prunes increase anabolic parathyroid:
Viewpoint: dried plum, an emerging functional food
that may effectively improve bone health.

Ageing Res Rev. 2009 Apr;8(2):122-7
The animal data indicate that dried plum
can even reverse existing bone loss
in two separate models of osteopenia.
Our initial animal [model of menopause] indicated that
dried plum prevented the reduction in bone mineral density
(BMD) of the femur[leg] and lumbar vertebra[lower back].
Dried plum as low as 5% (w/w)
restored BMD to the level of intact rats.
More importantly, dried plum reversed the loss of
[bone toughness in addition to density .]
We have also shown dried plum reverses
bone loss due to skeletal unloading[(a lack of
bone-training exercises)].
. dried plum enhanced bone recovery during
reambulation following skeletal unloading
[walking after being bedridden ],
and had comparable effects to
parathyroid hormone (PTH).
In addition to the animal studies,
our 3-month clinical trial indicated that
the consumption of dried plum daily
by postmenopausal women
significantly increased serum markers
of bone formation
( total alkaline phosphatase,
bone-specific alkaline phosphatase
and insulin-like growth factor-I)
by 12, 6, and 17%, respectively.
5.4: sci: what is it that raises PTH?:
. one reason prunes rival PTH as a bone growth factor,
is because it naturally stimulates PTH .

5.3: how parathyroid helps bones:

. medicine's traditional model of bone health
was that the elder's major problem was
too much bone resorption,
and the obvious way to put the brakes on that
is to normalize the elder's lack of testosterone
or estrogen-progesterone teamwork .
. the problem with the estrogen-only approach,
is that it does nothing for progesterone function
which is needed for the sort of bone remodeling
that will keep bones in a state of being
not only dense but also tough (not fracture-prone) .

. medicine has traditionally thought of PTH as
causing bone resorption; but in the bigger picture,
the parathyroid's plan during low calcium
is to initially start some bone resorption
in order to get more calcium into the blood,
and then -- with the help of bone-generated IGF-II --
also start some bone rebuilding
to regrow a larger or smaller strong bone,
-- where the bone width is depending on
the long-term calcium availability,
and the growth is depending on the body's
ability to promote growth generally
(that needs the availability and sensitivity to
all of insulin, progesterone, and the anabolics:
PTH, GH, and IGF).

PTH variations during menopause:
During the early phase of menopause,
the loss of estrogen increases bone resorption
[and meanwhile, the loss of progesterone
causes failure of bone-building cells
to undo the resorption .]
. high blood calcium from bone release
then causes a decrease in PTH secretion.
In the late phase of low estrogen
the resulting changes to intestinal calcium absorption
and renal calcium retention
is causing a state of low blood calcium
that increases PTH secretion
[which then asks the kidneys to retain calcium,
and asks the bones to do more remodeling;
however, with progesterone levels also low,
the bone-building signal is inhibited,
while the bone-resorbing function still works; 5.8:
and, with insulin-sensitivity low,
the bone is also IGF-resistant,
so, even if progesterone is normal,
the bone will not grow
and the resorption will be catastrophic .]
how estrogen modulates PTH:
. long-term estrogen replacement therapy (ERT)
suppresses both basal and stimulated PTH secretion,
via estrogen's ability to increase calcium levels
by increasing its absorption and retention .

5.4: web: relationship between IGF-I and PTH:

. IGF-1 is a potent activator of the AKT signaling pathway;
and, lack of AKT-1 results in low growth,
while lack of AKT-2 causes insulin resistance, and diabetes .
. AKT is associated with tumor cell survival, and invasiveness:
along with being a stimulator of cell growth and proliferation,
AKT is also a potent inhibitor apoptosis (cancer suicide).

. IGF-1 is produced in response to growth hormone;
but it also depends on, and is magnified by,
a high-protein diet, esp'ly casein
[the non-whey, non-carb portion of milk].
. growth hormone has no effect
if it can't stimulate IGF-I;
likewise, PTH cannot result in bone growth
without IGF-I or -II .

. the bone's builder cells
generate IGF-II in response to PTH;
however,
bone growth depends upon load-bearing exercise
(to avoid IGF resistance)
and the PTH must be pulsed rather than sustained
(to avoid over-doing the bone resorption).

. a lack of IGF-I results in the same risks as
insulin resistance and carbohydrate intolerance
(neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disease);
however, by far the most common problem is
getting too much IGF-I,
which happens from being resistant to its effect;
in that situation, only the cancers benefit from it .

. the best bone care is a low glycemic diet;
eg, Zone, Atkins*,  Paleo*,  LustigTaubes,
 or even the DASH
-- anything with either generous amounts of legumes
or moderate amounts of animal protein,
while also being
low in sugars and refined grains .
*:
. as for some of these diets being too high in protein,
high protein may not be healthy or efficient,
but highly glycemic grains and sugars are by far
the greatest disaster in the modern diet;
and, that's why Atkins didn't try harder at
keeping the protein moderate
(whatever helps the addicts,
in their time of greatest need).

5.3: the parathyroid hormone connection:

. parathyroid hormone is the body's primary regulator of
calcium and phosphate in the bones and blood;
while it ordinarily stimulates bone growth;
hyper.parathyroid.ism causes excessive amounts of
the growth cycle's resorptive phase
(where it is breaking down the bone
faster than it's building it back up);
this is likely due to the simple fact that
breaking things down is easier to do,
and is more quickly done than rebuilding ?

anabolic osteoporosis preventers:
. the class of "anabolic" osteoporosis preventers
include growth hormone (GH),
insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I)
Parathyroid Hormone-related peptide (PTHrp).
. in contrast to anti-resorptive agents
which inhibit bone remodeling
(the breakdown-and-rebuild cycle),
anabolics stimulate bone formation by
activating bone remodeling .
Human parathyroid hormone (hPTH):
. hPTH plays a key role in the maintenance of
a certain level of calcium in the blood,
by either pulling it from or adding it to bones,
or controling the kidney's excretion of it .
. hPTH increases the rate of bone remodelling
and results in a positive remodelling balance,
leading to thicker osteons [bone's micro-tubes] .
. hPTH(1–34) enlarges the width of long bones;
it decreases osteoblast apoptosis
[reduces death of bone-building cells]
and enhances differentiation of pre-osteoblasts.
[stimulates maturation of bone-building cells].
. raising the levels of anabolics [IGF, insulin]
may increase the risk of cancers;
[ so the ideal situation is to deal with
whatever is inhibiting natural anabolic function;
and, the usual culprit is excessive cortisol,
which causes insulin resistance,
which in turn causes resistance to anabolics;
so, although low parathyroid hormone can be quite rare,
low parathyroid function can be quite common .]

. magnesium is important for parathyroid
[. magnesium is also required for insulin sensitivity,
and conversely, insulin sensitivity is required
in order to absorb magnesium .]
Vitamin D and calcium supplements
are the primary treatments for hypo.parathyroidism,
regardless of the cause;
along with magnesium supplementation
if levels of that are low .
[. this article states that parathyroid resistance is rare
but it's quite common for an elder's medical advice
to include Vitamin D and calcium supplements
which happens to be the only treatment
for parathyroid resistance .
(by the way, along with vitamin D,
vitamin K is another supp' you might need
in order to avoid arterial calcifications
if you are prone to bone loss .]

5.3: web: effects on female hormones:

Dried prune estrogenics
(Nutr Cancer, rawpaleodietforum):
177.5 µg Lignan content /100g
183.5µg Total phytoestrogen /100g
-- compare that Black bean souce:
5330.3 µg Total phytoestrogen /100g
[. so it's quite clear that prune's contribution
has nothing to do with being estrogenic .]

Effects of prune consumption on the ratio of
2-hydroxyestrone to 16α-hydroxyestrone1,2,3

A higher urinary ratio of the biologically inactive
estrogen metabolite, 2-hydroxyestrone (2OHE1),
to the biologically active metabolite,
16α-hydroxyestrone (16αOHE1),
may be associated with a lower risk of breast cancer.
High fiber intake is also associated with
decreased breast cancer risk.
Results:
. the suggested dose of Prunes has
4 grams of total fiber,
2grams of that is soluble fiber )
Prune supplementation significantly decreased
the excretion of 16αOHE1
during the follicular phase of the first menstrual cycle
and during the luteal phases of
both the first and third menstrual cycles.
The 2OHE1-16αOHE1 ratio
did not change significantly,
yet 16αOHE1 excretion decreased .

4.6: web: low glycemic index and AGEs not bad:

Prunes boast more antioxidants than any other fruit
according to Dr. Jonny Bowen,
Board Certified Nutrition Specialist
[but not when comparing orac values (see below).]
. the glycemic index ranking of pitted prunes
is very low: 29, plus or minus 4 points .
[. Prunes, pitted (Sunsweet Growers Inc, Yuba City, CA, USA)
Serving size 60g, Available carbohydrate 33g,
Glycemic Load = 10 -- that is( 29gi * 33g /100)
... but,
isn't it true that dried foods have a problem with AGEs
(advanced glycation end-products) ? (see next)
. that's mostly a problem with high-glycemic foods?
5.3: or high-fat foods:
AGE compounds may form through many pathways,
including oxidation of sugars, lipids, and amino acids
to create reactive aldehydes that covalently bind to proteins .]
100g dried pitted prunes have 167 kU AGEs:
. that's a comparatively good number:
dried fig: 2663 -- that high number is typical of
     cookies, cakes, crackers, fried food;
egg poached: 90
(eggs fried: 2750 , dried whites: 1040)
hershey special dark chocolate: 1777
coconut cream: 933
coconut milk: 307
grilled veg: 261
kidney beans (canned -- undercooked): 191
kidney beans (hour-cooked): 298
raw mushroom: 129 -- even without cooking or drying;
raisin: 120 -- mostly fructose not glucose;
dates: 60 -- glycemic index = 30..50 (species vary)
Modern diets are largely heat-processed
and as a result contain high levels of AGEs
(advanced glycation end products).
Dietary AGEs (dAGEs) are known to contribute to
increased oxidant stress and inflammation,
which are linked to the recent epidemics of
diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
. dry heat promotes new dAGE formation
by >10- to 100-fold above the uncooked state
across food categories.
The formation of new dAGEs during cooking was
significantly reduced by cooking with moist heat,
using shorter cooking times,
cooking at lower temperatures,
and by use of acidic ingredients
such as lemon juice or vinegar.
prunes' ORAC value is 8,059 μ mol TE/100g:
. compare to:
Sumac, bran, raw    312,400
Sorghum, bran, hi-tannin    240,000
Spices, oregano, dried    175,295
Spices, rosemary, dried    165,280
Spices, thyme, dried    157,380
Spices, cinnamon, ground    131,420
Spices, turmeric, ground    127,068
Spices, vanilla beans, dried    122,400
Spices, sage, ground    119,929
Acai, fruit pulp/skin, powder 102,700 μ mol TE/100g.
...
Raspberries, black 19,220 μ mol TE/100g.
pecans 17,940 μ mol TE/100g.
Chokeberry, raw 16,062 μ mol TE/100g.
hazelnuts or filberts 9,645 μ mol TE/100g.
Beans, kidney, red, 8,606 μ mol TE/100g.
Beans, black, 8,494 μ mol TE/100g. (2,249 boiled )
Blueberries, raw 4,669 μ mol TE/100g.
ORAC Value per 100g and per Price:
120K/$ Turmeric    160K/100g * 6.03/pound   
95K/$ Bee Pollen    250K/100g * $12/pound   
80K/$ Sumac    87K/100g * $4.99/pound
67K/$ Oregano    200K/100g * $2.59/3 oz   
52K/$ Cocoa Powder, unsweetened    81K/100g * $5.32/12 oz   
11K/$ Acai Berry, freeze-dried    100K/100g * $210/5 pounds   
5.3: web: nutrition facts:
100g pitted prunes:
240 cal, 38g sugars (mostly fructose), 7g fiber,
41mg magnesium,
43mg calcium
59.5 microgram vit'k; -- 100g spinach has 493 micrograms .
100g prunes:
. strongly inflammatory (-366 factor)
-- from the sugars;
0.28mg manganese = 15% rda
43.50 g prunes (0.25 cup):
calories    104.40    5.80% dv
carbohydrates    27.79 g   
soluble fiber    1.30 g
insoluble fiber    1.79 g
sugar - total    16.59 g
( monosaccharides    16.49 g --[ glucose, fructose, ...]
, disaccharides    0.09 g --[ sucrose (= glucose+fructose)...]
, other carbs    8.11 g -- [sorbitol, other sugar alcohols, ...]
) .
calcium    18.70 mg   
magnesium    17.83 mg
manganese    0.13 mg --[prevents some cancers]
vitamin K    25.88 mcg --[also good for bones]
California Dried Plum Board
Technical Bulletin February, 2005:
California Dried Plums Offer Confectioners
a Sweet Solution to Control And Reduce
Fat, Calories, Sugar and Carbohydrates
www.californiadriedplums.org
--- Fresh Prune Plum (g/100 g) ---
3.1 Glucose, 3.3 Fructose, 4.4 Sucrose, 2.7 Sorbitol

--- 100g dried plums (pitted?) ---
23.4g glucose, 16g fructose  0 sucrose, 15g sorbitol --[the laxative] .
 -- source:
Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M. et al,
and California Dried Plum Board .

-- same table as above expressed as percentages --
(Glucose, Fructose, Sucrose, Sorbitol):
fresh: (23%, 24%, 32.6%, 20%)
dried: (43%, 29%, 0%, 27.6)
--[how does drying convert the sucrose?]

dried plum's Glycemic Index (GI) of 29 (+/-4)
and a Glycemic Load (GL) of 10
based on a 60g serving size.
. compare to 60g raisins gi = 56, gL = 25 .
-- source:
Foster-Powell K, Holt SHA, Brand-Miller JC, 2002.
Am J Clin Nutr; 76-5,
--[ 60g dried apple has gi = 29, gL = 10;
but 120g fresh apple has gi = 36 . ?
... checking the source:
there is only one entry for dried apple,
but many for fresh apples,
and their gi ranges in 28 ... 44 .]
fun facts:
According to the National Confectioners Association,
the confectionery industry in 2003 had
$25 billion in annual retail sales .
In response to consumer demand for
more health-conscious alternatives,
a relatively new confection segment has emerged:
sugar free, low-sugar, low-carbohydrate,
calcium and vitamin-fortified.
This segment reached $100 million in sales in 2003.
More importantly it is growing at 90% per year.

In 1997 the concept of Glycemic Load (GL)
was introduced to quantify the overall
glycemic effect of a portion of food.1,2
The higher the GL,
the greater the expected elevation in blood glucose
and in the insulinogenic effect of the food.
(1) Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men.
Diabetes Care 1997;20:545-50
(2) Dietary fiber, glycemic load and risk of
non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women,
JAMA 1997;277:472-7

5.4: news: vitamin D preserves manganese!:
vit'd3 reduces phytate binding in chickens:

Dietary 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol Supplementation
Increases Natural Phytate Phosphorus Utilization

The hydrolysis of the phytates in the gastrointestinal tract
when 1,25-(OH)2D3 is fed will also necessitate redefining the
quantitative requirements for
such trace elements as zinc, iron and manganese,
which are known to have greatly decreased absorption
in the presence of intact phytate.
5.4: web: vit'd causes bone resorption? depends on form:
Local action of oral 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol
on calcium absorption in osteoporosis.

To investigate whether low calcium absorption
improves by increasing 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D
both systemically in plasma and locally in gut,
the effects of
oral 25-hydroxy.cholecalciferol (hc) and
oral 1,25-di.hydroxy.cholecalciferol (dhc)
on plasma 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D)
and calcium absorption were studied in 20
postmenopausal's with vertebral osteoporosis.
. In 10 taking oral micrograms  of supplement for 7 days,
0.25 dhc twice daily vs
40 hc once daily, both groups had a similar increase
in plasma 1,25-(OH)2D.
These results support the view that
the major effects on absorption of oral dhc
is due to a local action on the gut,
and that with dhc it is possible to
increase calcium absorption in osteoporosis
without increasing its undesirable action on bone resorption .
5.4: project-aware.org's osteo advice:
Diet, exercise, and lifestyle factors can offer
the same benefits of hormone supplementation
without the risks.23
[5.9:
. see also new work on creams that contain
bio-identical version of these hormones
:
estrogen, progesterone and testosterone .
. the FDA doesn't recognize the term
"(bio-identical hormone);
but the term makes a real distinction
between patent-able versions of hormones
and versions that have no identifiable
difference from what is naturally found
in the human body .]

Coffee And Spice Grinder

project-aware.org's dietary advice:
. the DASH trial (Dietary Approaches Stopping Hypertension)
increases the fruit and vegetable intake
from 3.6 to 9.5 daily servings;
it resulted in a reduction of urinary calcium excretion
from 157 mg/day to 110 mg/day. 27
High sodium levels are closely related to
increased calcium excretion.
This is a concern, considering that adequate calcium intake
plays a major role in reducing the incidence of osteoporosis.24
[5.10:
. the dash diet also reduces glycemic index,
which helps keep down the insulin levels
so that kidneys are able to excrete salt efficiently .]

Boron
. a dose of 3 mg boron daily
reduces urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium,
especially when dietary magnesium is low.
Boron elevates 17 beta estradiol7 and testosterone,
again when dietary magnesium is low.
The findings suggest that boron supplementation
induces changes in postmenopausal women
consistent with the prevention of
calcium loss and bone demineralization.4, 31, 32, 15
. Boron helps increase estrogen levels in the blood.
Osteoporosis may be a sign of boron deficiency.2
sources:
. among leafy vegetables,
cabbage ranks highest in boron content;
about 3/4 cup dried cabg,
or 1/2 cup dried dandelion shoots
could provide more than 1 mg of boron7 .
Mineral and trace element insufficiencies
are actually more likely to occur than are
vitamin insufficiencies .
Those at risk include the elderly, pregnant women,
vegetarians, people who eat low-calorie diets,
people on certain drugs (such as diuretics),
and those living where the soil is deficient in minerals.
Suboptimal intake can be due to
factors other than soil depletion
and are as diverse as the effects of acid rain
and the over-refining, over-processing of foods.15
Chromium
. cr improves insulin efficiency,
which improves bone density;3
. the picolinate form should without medical supervision;2
the form of cr that is bound with niacin
is more bioavailable .
Copper
. cu aids in the formation of bone.3
Copper deficiency has been noted [only in]
persons taking 150 mg of zinc daily for more than a year. 15
sources:
. beef(12mg/85g), oyster(3.6mg/85g), lobster,
shiitake mushroom(1.3mg/145g), crab,
pearled barley, tomato, european chestnuts,
buckwheat, sunflower seed, cashews,
chickpeas, rice, white beans, lentils(0.5mg/198g),
chicken giblets, bulgur, blackeyed peas, walnuts,
lima beans, kidney beans, couscous, spinach (0.4mg/214g)

Zinc
. 15 - 45 mg/day
assists calcium uptake and immune function.
. for best absorption,
use zinc gluconate lozenges or OptiZinc;3
Excess zinc can cause deficiencies in copper and iron,
therefore a ratio of 10 parts zinc
to 1 part copper is recommended.
sources:
. oysters, beef, lamb, turkey, barley, buckwheat,
pork, veal, lobster, crab, white beans,
bulgar, lentils, chicken, blackeyed peas,
wild rice, pumpkin seeds, peas,
black beans, miso .
. brewer's yeast, seafoods and animal meats;
vegetable sources are not very bioavailable.15
DHEA
. dhea helps generate estrogen and testosterone;
increases the percentage of muscle mass;
decreases the percentage of body fat;
and stimulates bone deposition,
thereby helping to prevent osteoporosis.
. high doses can also lead to liver damage;
[ but, if you don't use it orally, you won't need a high dose .]

silicon from Horsetail
. silicon helps prevent osteoporosis;
Horsetail is among the richest plant sources,
in the absorbable form, mono.silicic acid;
Aging[insulin resistance?] and low estrogen levels
decrease the body's ability to absorb silicon,
and supplemental forms are often difficult to absorb.7
. also see stabilized orthosilicic acid
(monomeric, single-chain silicic acid) .
Manganese
. mn is vital in mineral metabolism,
and may help prevent osteoporosis.
One study showed that rats on a low-manganese diet
developed porous bones.3
. large pharmacologic doses of iodide (found in kelp)
can lead to a temporary block of hormone synthesis
and produce temporary hypothyroidism.15
. kelp is not advisable for those with
Hashimoto's autoimmune thyroiditis;
[ I found high-dose se-methylselenocysteine
to be very helpful during thyroiditis .]
sources:
. bulgar, barley, pine nuts, buckwheat, rice,
chickpeas, spinach, lima beans, couscous,
pumpkin seeds, sweet potato,
collard greens, lentils, kidney beans .
. egg yolks, green leafy vegetables, legumes, liver, nuts.2
Kelp [or other seaweeds]  are rich in minerals for bone.3
L-lysine
. lysine aids calcium absorption,
and improves connective tissue strength3
(critical for optimal bone formation in children).
To improve skin and strengthen bones,
a supplement of 500 mg may be taken 1 or 2 times a day,
30 minutes before meals.2
sources:
. eggs, fish, lima beans, [whey protein isolate, ...]
Magnesium
. helps uptake of calcium and potassium3
and interacts with boron, calcium, iron, manganese,
phosphorus, potassium, and strontium.
. don't exceed 3000 mg magnesium per day.2
sources:
. beans, spinach, buckwheat, barley, pumpkin seeds .

Calcium
. using twice as much calcium as magnesium,
will maximize the usability of magnesium .
sources:
. collards, rhubarb, yogurt, canned sardine,
spinach, turnip greens, canned salmon,
chinese cabbage, okra, rice, navy beans,
blue crab, lettuce, edible-podded peas,
kale, tomato, kidney bean, cabbage .

Vitamin D
. helps calcium uptake3 and phosphorus metabolism,
High levels of synthetic vitamin D can deplete magnesium .
Excessive stored levels of vitamin D
can cause [painful calcium deposits].
sources:
. chinook salmon(14mic/85g), sockeye salmon,
swordfish, halibut(5mic/85g), rockfish,
light tuna(5.7mic/85g)
-- but {white, yellowfin} tuna(1.7mic/85g),
flat fish species(3mic/85g),
pickled herring, pork, perch, raw egg(1.2mic/58g),
shiitake mushroom(1mic/145g), cod, beef,
walleye pollock fish, haddock fish (0.5mic/85g)
. egg yolks, sunlight .
Vitamin K
Bone protein synthesis depends on vitamin K .
In addition to producing blood-clotting factors
and having a role in the prevention and treatment of
postmenopausal osteoporosis,
vitamin K has unusual anti-tumor properties.
Suggested dosage is 300-500 mcg/day,
[lef.org recommends 2100mcg/day]
sources:
. {kale, collards, spinach}(1mg/cup),
turnip greens(0.8mg cup), dandelion greens,
mustard greens, brussels sprouts(0.3mg/cup), scallions .
. spinach, broccoli, cabbage, liver, and tomatoes .
Yogurt with active bacterial cultures and probiotics
help create vitamin K in the intestines.2
sources of other nutrients:
. see ars.usda.gov .

project-aware.org's references:
2
Natural Remedies and Supplements. 2000.
3
Prescription for Nutritional Healing, 2nd ed. 1997.
4
The influence of a low-boron diet and boron supplementation
on bone, major mineral and sex steroid metabolism
in postmenopausal women.

Br J Nutr 1993 May;69(3):871-84
7
The Green Pharmacy. 1997, 1998
15
The Doctors' Vitamin and Mineral Encyclopedia,
23
Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine,
24
North American Menopause Society (NAMS),
The Role of Calcium in peri- and postmenopausal women:
2006 position statement,
page 862
Menopause, Vol 13, No. 6, 2006
27
New SA. Nutritional Factors Influencing the
Development and Maintenance of Bone Health
Throughout the Life Cycle,

World Congress on Osteoporosis 2000. Day 1 - June 15, 2000
31
Effect of dietary boron on mineral, estrogen,
and testosterone metabolism
in postmenopausal women.

FASEB J 1987 Nov;1(5):394-7
32
Biochemical and physiologic consequences of
boron deprivation in humans.

Environ Health Perspect 1994 Nov;102 Suppl 7:59-63


Hfi Tough Guy Mini Dog Bone Pet Bed