2012-07-16

high times for low carb

7.9..13: summary:
. A Calorie Is A Calorie theory
disproven again?
nobody was seriously positing
that all calories are equal;
what they were trying to do is
not offend the food marketers
or those who like the new modern diet .
. what they were say is:
"( so what if corn syrup is addictive:
can we treat consumers like adults?! )

. however, it's very interesting to hear
that low-carb diets raise cortisol
and C-reactive protein (measure of inflammation)]
more than low-glycemic diets !
-- esp'ly when most people will
misinterpret what that just said:
Atkins did not raise these!
Atkins dieters had very good cortisol levels
relative to the levels associated with heart disease
and Atkins will cut your CRP in half !

. I wonder what about the Atkins diet
doesn't lower the inflammation index
as much as other diets will ?
what if all the fats were monounsaturates,
and they added a lot of fish oil ?
todo:
. maybe the reason for cortisol is that
when starting out on low carb,
one's liver is not yet trained
to provide the needed carbs?
. doesn't the brain use ketones?
if the liver is producing ketones,
does it still produce glucose?
does the brain prefer glucose over ketones ?

7.11: the beyond-a-century (BAC) diet:

. the BAC diet is interestingly like Atkins,
but also combines Zone diet principles
(moderate protein, healthy fats only).
. its study included many of the same blood tests
that are shown for the new study .

Clinical Experience of a Diet Designed to Reduce Aging:
. the BAC (beyond a century) diet
uses unlimited amounts of certain fats and oils,
(raw nuts and seeds, avocados, and olives;
olive oil, flax oil and cod liver oil)
and a very limited amount of carbohydrate
( caloric percentages were typically
20% carb, 20% protein, 60% fat
given a moderate number of calories).
6-8 eight ounce glasses of water or herbal tea .
. protein was 50-80 grams per day
(1.0 grams/kg lean body mass per day
increased for exercise to 1.25 grams/day).
. protein sources included
fish(esp'ly sardines), eggs,
tofu, chicken, turkey, wild meats,
low-fat cheeses (cottage, ricotta, swiss),
other seafoods, and veggie burgers.
vegetables:
Only non-starchy, fibrous were acceptable;
eg, lettuce, greens,[dark green leafies]
broccoli, cauliflower,[cruciferous]
cucumbers, onions, peppers,
mushrooms, sprouts, asparagus,
and seaweed. [see okinawan diet]
. supplements to support fat metabolism
and enhance insulin sensitivity:
L-carnitine 2000mg,
alpha-lipoic acid 400mg,
coenzyme Q10 100 mg,
1 tbsp cod liver oil,
[make sure it has IFOS™ certification]
magnesium 300mg, vitamin C 1000mg,
potassium 300mg, vitamin E 800mg daily,
and a multivitamin consisting of
all essential B vitamins and minerals .
resuling blood work:
                            Baseline    Follow-up        % Change
Insulin (mg/dl)        22.2 ±2.9    11.1 ± 0.9*     −40.1 ± 4.7*
Leptin (mg/dl)        16.5 ± 2.5    8.2 ± 1.4*        −48.2 ± 3.7*
Glucose (mg/dl)    108.3 ± 5.0    99.3 ±4.5*      −7.6 ± 2.1*
Triglyceride(mg/dl)229.3 ± 75.1    110.7 ±14.2* −28.3 ± 5.7*
HDL (mg/dl)         55.4 ± 3.5        53.5 ± 3.0        −0.3 ± 3.9
Free T3 (pg/ml)    2.97 ± 0.05    2.64 ± 0.06*      −10.8 ± 1.8*
*: p<0.001; data presented as ± S.E.M.
blood pressure:
Systolic (mmHg)    136.6 ± 3.7    121.7 ± 2.3*    −10.2 ± 2.1*
Diastolic (mmHg)    86.5 ± 1.7        76.4 ± 1.7*   −11.4 ± 1.8*
Body weight (kg)   86.3 ± 3.2        79.2 ± 3.0*   −8.1 ± 0.8*
Serum creatinine and TSH did not change significantly:
Creatinine (mg/dl)    1.02 ± 0.03    1.01± 0.03     0.5± 1.7
TSH (pg/ml)            2.53 ± 0.25    2.57 ± 0.22    8.9 ± 8.1
6.28: news.health/
Calorie Is Just A Calorie disproven again:


A Calorie Is Just A Calorie?
PRNewswire-USNewswire June 26:
. when maintaining weight loss,
Reducing refined carbohydrates
may help better than reducing fat will .
-- A new study published 06-27 in the
Journal of the American Medical Association
challenges the notion that "a calorie is a calorie".
The study finds diets that
reducing the surge in blood sugar after a meal
-- either low-glycemic index
or very-low carbohydrate
may be preferable to a low-fat diet
for those trying to achieve lasting weight loss
because one tends to burn 300 more calories
"(That's the amount you'd burn off in an hour of
moderate intensity physical activity
but without lifting a finger)
says senior author David Ludwig,
director of the
New Balance Foundation
Obesity Prevention Center
at Boston Children's Hospital.

The very low-carbohydrate diet
produced the greatest improvements in
metabolic syndrome parameters
while the low-glycemic index diet
provided nearly the benefits of low-carb
and was even more beneficial
at reducing cortisol and CRP .
[ CDr's reporting of the study:
All diets showed a decrease in
resting energy with weight loss,
but the difference between the diets
was statistically significant.
The decrease in resting energy was
least in the low-carb diet
and greatest in the low-fat diet:
(resting energy calories per day)
-205 for the low-fat diet,
-166 for the low-GI diet, and
-138 for the low-carb diet.
Total energy expenditure per day(calories):
-423 per day for the low-fat diet,
-297 for the low-GI diet,
-97 calories per day for the low-carb diet. ]
Each of the study's 21 adult participants (ages 18-40)
first had to lose 10 to 15 % (30 lb)
and after weight stabilization,
completed all three diets in random order,
each for four weeks at a time
(randomized crossover design).

. the diets had equal calories
but the (carb, fat, protein) percentages differed:
(60%, 20%, 20%) for low-fat diet
(40%, 40%, 20%) for low-glycemic diet
(10%, 60%, 30%) for low-carb Atkins-style diet .

. all diets included low-glycemic fruits and vegetables;
but while the low-fat diet
emphasized whole-grain products
and allowed high-glycemics
(breads, pasta, starchy veg (potatoes))
the low-carb diet emphasized
fish, chicken, beef, eggs, cheese,
and avoided high-glycemics .

. the low-glycemic index diet
was similar to a Mediterranean diet,
(and to the Nutrisystem and the Zone diet)
featuring beans (the highest-protein legumes)
and high-monounsaturate oils (olive oil, nuts)
along with some minimally processed grains
(old-fashioned oats, brown rice)
and avoiding high-glycemics .

Though a low-fat diet is recommended by
the U.S. Government and Heart Association,
it caused the greatest decrease in energy expenditure,
and [of course, a less than optimal
lipid pattern and insulin sensitivity ].
Cara Ebbeling, PhD, associate director:
"Unlike low-fat and very- low carbohydrate diets,
a low-glycemic-index diet
doesn't eliminate entire classes of food,
likely making it easier to follow and more sustainable."
[7.9: that is not true:
. most modern processed foods
are either high-glycemic,
or high in insulin resistors;
both of which, as a class of foods,
are excluded by the
low-glycemic-index diet;
also, they are confused about Atkins:
. they make it sound like it was Atkins
being compared to a low-glycemic diet;
but for a maintenance phase of a diet
the Atkins diet is the very low-glycemic diet
that they suggest here .
. people who use low-carb during maintenance
are not Atkins dieters !

Atkins suggest you use low-carb
only during boot camp
or perhaps also during
the entire weight loss phase .]

. here's the study's test results:
Serum leptin
(mean [95% CI], overall P < .001)
-- proportional to glycemic load
14.9 [12.1-18.4] ng/mL -- low-fat
12.7 [10.3-15.6] ng/mL -- low–glycemic index
11.2 [9.1-13.8] ng/mL -- low-carb
. the beyond-a-century diet (from, to, %change):
(mg/dl)        16.5 ± 2.5    8.2 ± 1.4*        −48.2 ± 3.7*
thyroid-stimulating hormone
(mean [95% CI], overall P = .04) 
-- proportional to glycemic load
1.27 [1.01-1.60] μIU/mL -- low fat;
1.22 [0.97-1.54] μIU/mL --  low glycemic index; and
1.11 [0.88-1.40] μIU/mL -- very low carbohydrate;

total T3 (triiodothyronine)
(mean [95% CI], overall P = .006).
-- lowered by low-carb
(norm is 80..200 ng/dL)
http://www.globalrph.com/labs_t.htm
121 [108-135] ng/dL -- low-fat
123 [110-137 ng/dL -- low–glycemic index
108 [96-120] ng/dL -- low-carbohydrate diet;
-- 7.11: centenarians have lower Free T3 (pg/ml)
(norm is : 2.3..4.2 pg/mL )
. the beyond-a-century diet lowered free T3:
from 2.97 to 2.64 -- a change of −10.8 ± 1.8
Regarding components of the metabolic syndrome,
indexes of insulin sensitivity
-- peripheral (P = .02) and hepatic (P = .03) --
were worse with increasing glycemic load .
. the beyond-a-century diet (from, to, %change):
Insulin (mg/dl)        22.2 ±2.9    11.1 ± 0.9*    −40.1 ± 4.7*
serum HDL cholesterol
(mean [95% CI], overall P < .001),
-- inversely proportional to glycemic load:
40 [35-45] mg/dL -- low-fat,
45 [41-50] mg/dL  -- low–glycemic index
48 [44-53] mg/dL -- very low-carbohydrate diet
. the beyond-a-century diet (from, to, %change):
55.4 ± 3.5        53.5 ± 3.0        −0.3 ± 3.9
triglycerides (overall P < .001),
-- proportional to glycemic load:
107 [87-131] mg/dL -- low-fat,
87 [71-106] mg/dL -- low–glycemic index
66 [54-81] mg/dL -- very low-carbohydrate diet .
. the beyond-a-century diet (from, to, %change):
229.3 ± 75.1    110.7 ±14.2*    −28.3 ± 5.7*
plasminogen activator inhibitor 1
(mean [95% CI], P = .04)
-- proportional to glycemic load:
1.39 [0.94-2.05] ng/mL -- least favorable with the low-fat diet.
1.15 [0.78-1.71] ng/mL;
1.01 [0.68-1.49] ng/mL, -- most favorable with the very low-carbohydrate diet

CRP [C-reactive protein (measure of inflammation)]
(median [95% CI], P = .05).
-- higher with the very low-carbohydrate diet:
0.78 [0.38-1.92] mg/L for low-fat diet;
0.76 [0.50-2.20] mg/L for low–glycemic index diet; and
0.87 [0.57-2.69] mg/L for very low-carbohydrate diet;

Blood pressure did not differ among the 3 diets.
--[ raised by a high fructose diet .]
cortisol
(mean [95% CI], overall P = .005)
( excretion measured with a 24-hour urine collection )
--[ increases with fat percentage?
inversely proportional to glycemic load? ]
50 [41-60] μg/d for low fat;
60 [49-73] μg/d for low glycemic index; and
71 [58-86] μg/d for very low carbohydrate;
--[ typical values?  teen`max:55, adult`max: 100 ]
Twenty-four hour urinary cortisol excretion,
a hormonal measure of stress,
was highest with the very low-carbohydrate diet.
Consistent with this finding,
Stimson et al reported
increased whole-body regeneration of cortisol
by 11β-HSD1
and reduced inactivation of cortisol
by 5α- and 5β-reductases
over 4 weeks on a very low-carb diet
vs a moderate-carbohydrate diet.

Higher cortisol levels may promote
adiposity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease,
as observed in epidemiological studies.
[7.11:
-- but that's a flying fallacious leap!
. there's no evidence from these epi'studies
that a low-carb' diet would lead to either
adiposity or insulin resistance;
and, it's the high levels of insulin
that are predicting cardiovascular disease .]

In a 6-year prospective, population-based study
of older adults in Italy,
those in the highest (>111 μg) vs lowest tertile (<78 μg)
of 24-hour cortisol excretion,
with or without preexisting cardiovascular disease,
had a 5-fold increased risk of cardiovascular mortality.
[7.11: so?
. the normal & health reference range
was 28.5 - 78 μg
compared to 71 [58-86] μg/d for low-carb' dieting
vs 50 [41-60] μg/d for low fat dieting;
so, the low-carb diet still has
very good cortisol .]
C-reactive protein also tended to be higher
with the very low-carbohydrate diet in our study,
consistent with the findings of Rankin and Turpyn.*
Other studies also have found reductions in measures of
chronic inflammation, including CRP
with a low–glycemic index diet.37 - 39
*: Rankin and Turpyn` Low Carbohydrate,
High Fat Diet Increases C-Reactive Protein during Weight Loss
[summary:
. it shows the CRP change,
and while high-carb tended to lower it by 0..4 points,
low-carb had the opposite effect: raising it 0..2;
but, the obese start out with higher CRP levels,
so this is a measure of
how much fat burning goes on
(the obese usually have high insulin,
and thus prefer to convert all carb's to fats,
and then burn fats like atkins does ) .]
The study was funded by
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases,
the National Center for Research and Resources,
the National Institutes of Health
and the New Balance Foundation.
www.childrenshospital.org/
7.9: web: what do low-carb'ers make of this?:
Jun-26, lowcarber.org:
the "cover article" of USA Today:

"The low-glycemic index diet
seems to be the happy medium,"
says Cara Ebbeling,
associate director of the Obesity Prevention Center.
"It didn't slow metabolism as much as the low-fat diet,
and it didn't seem to have some of the negative effects
on cardiovascular disease risk."

Eric Westman, a Duke University researcher
who has conducted several studies on the low-carb diet
and is co-author of The New Atkins for a New You,
says this study documents that
the "lower the carbohydrates,
the better the metabolic effects.
People burn more calories
if they eat fewer carbohydrates."

But some experts say these findings
are very preliminary.

Marion Nestle, a nutrition professor at New York University,
says longer studies conducted among
people in their own environments,
not with such controlled meals,
have shown "little difference
in weight loss and maintenance
between one kind of diet and another."
More research is needed to show that
interesting results like these
are applicable in real life, ...
"In the meantime,
if you want to lose weight, eat less."
--[7.9: but eat less of what?
this study showed without a doubt
that if you actually didn't cheat on Atkins,
you'd get better results than a low fat diet .]
George Bray, an obesity researcher at
Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge
who has also studied this topic
and who wrote the accompanying editorial in JAMA,
says that other studies "show that
you can do well on any diet
as long as you stick to it.
Adherence is the major key
for weight loss and maintenance.
There is no magic in any diet."
--[7.9: "( do well on any diet
as long as you stick to it )
so what?! is he selling amphetamines?
there is indeed magic to a high fat
(esp'ly if you're obese and insulin resistant).
. but I do have to agree to this extent:
modernity's biggest problem
is trying to get high on food;
find a real drug, or stop trying to get high! ]

7.12: more critics:
Dr. Xavier Pi-sunyer,
director of the New York Obesity
Nutrition Research Center, said the
[glycemic] concept is too confusing
for most consumers to follow for the long-term.
"I think a message of eating more
whole grains, fruits, vegetables
and high-fiber foods
is a much better and easier measure
to give people"  .
[7.15:
. but whole grains are controversial
(fungal load, anti-nutrients, allergens);
anything whole grains can do for health
legumes can do better!
so, if veggy protein is what you're after,
consider organic black turtle beans,
or well-cooked kidney beans .]
amundson @ lowcarber.org Jun-26-12, 15:53
The question I would ask is
the role of omega 6 fats versus omega 3 fats.
There is no mention of them in the paper.
My question is whether
the composition of the fats in the low carb diet
(i.e., too large a proportion of omega 6 fats)
would account for the [Atkins diet
not being as anti-inflammatory as other diets .]
LC FP @ lowcarber.org Jun-27-12, 23:35
This is the link to the study in JAMA,
The CRP data shows that
CRP fell in all three diets from 1.75
to 0.76 for low gI;
to 0.78 for low fat;
to 0.87 for LC.
However they say this about CRP:
Variables with skewed distribution
were log-transformed for analysis.
One variable with extreme skew (CRP)
was rank transformed for analysis.
But, anyway,
the LC diet did not cause CRP to increase
It was cut in half.
aj_cohn @ lowcarber.org Jun-27-12, 13:01
Usually, CRP falls on a LC diet.
That was reported in a study about 5 years ago
RawNut @ lowcarber.org Jun-27-12, 13:45
This long term study
shows an equal lowering of CRP
between the LowFat and LowCarb groups:
Change in CRP concentrations at 1 y (mg/L)
Baseline     Week 24     Week 52     Change
 LowCarb:
2.7 ± 0.3     2.2 ± 0.3     1.5 ± 0.2     −1.3 ± 0.2
 LowFat:
2.8 ± 0.4     2.0 ± 0.4     1.4 ± 0.2     −1.4 ± 0.3 
Mean difference: 0.1 ± 0.5
-- For changes from baseline to week 52.
95% CI2:    −0.8, 1.0
P for time × diet: 0.903
-- P values are for the LowCarb diet
relative to the conventional LowFat diet
(time × diet interaction)
by repeated-measures ANOVA.
*: 1 All values are means ± SEMs
for the 69 participants who completed the study.
LC, very-low-carbohydrate diet (n = 33);
LF, conventional low-fat diet (n = 36);
 CRP data were excluded for 9 persons
(LC: n = 2; LF: n = 7)
because CRP values were >10 mg/L.
JEY100 @ lowcarber.org Jun-27-12, 13:46

CDr has an article about this new study:
CRP:
. C-reactive protein is a marker of inflammation
and has been correlated with poorer outcomes in
cancer, stroke, depression, and cardiovascular disease*
Cortisol:
. a hormone that counteracts insulin
and the body uses to raise blood sugar
when it is low via stimulation of gluconeogenesis
(conversion of fat to glucose)
predictably rose in the low-carbers.
*[Relation of C-reactive protein to stroke, cognitive disorders, and depression in the general population: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Elevated Biomarkers of Inflammation Are Associated With Reduced Survival Among Breast Cancer Patients. ]

The inflammatory serum marker
C-reactive protein (CRP)
was increased in the low-carb group,
and unfortunately [that ambiguous phrasing]
is what made headlines .
. longer-term studies have shown
low-carb will reduce inflammation .
[7.12: summary of that link:
. the main causes of dietary inflammation
are the high-glycemics, omega-6 oils,
and the longer-chain saturated fats .
. oats were inflammatory;
[most grains are, whether whole or refined;
coconut oil's longest mct's (lauric acid)
can bring on an inflammatory response
which can be countered with
high-DHA fisho oil .]]
Also,
leptin and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1,
which are also associated with inflammation
were improved more by the low-carb diet .

Conversely, all markers of metabolic syndrome
were improved in the low-carb diet,
which is consistent with the literature*
*[ Limited Effect of Dietary Saturated Fat on Plasma Saturated Fat in the Context of a Low Carbohydrate Diet.
Comparison of Low Fat and Low Carbohydrate Diets on Circulating Fatty Acid Composition and Markers of Inflammation.
Carbohydrate Restriction has a More Favorable Impact on the Metabolic Syndrome than a Low Fat Diet.
A randomized trial comparing a very low carbohydrate diet and a calorie-restricted low fat diet on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women.
Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women:
the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial.
Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat/low-calorie diets in the management of obesity and its comorbidities.
Low-carbohydrate diet review: shifting the paradigm. ]


Directly comparing a low-carbohydrate
to a conventional low-fat diet,
though short term, showed that
the low-carb diet resulted in
a resting energy expenditure
that was 67 calories per day higher
and a total energy expenditure
that was 300 calories per day higher,
even though physical activity
did not change during the study.
Therefore,
the low-carb dieters appeared to
simply burn more calories per day
than the other two diets.
This parallels other reports
on the “metabolic advantage”
of low-carbohydrate diets*
that lead to so much controversy
in the field of nutrition.
*[ Short-term weight loss and hepatic triglyceride reduction: evidence of a metabolic advantage with dietary carbohydrate restriction.
“A calorie is a calorie” violates the second law of thermodynamics.
Thermodynamics of weight loss diets.
Variables predictive of adherence to diet and physical activity recommendations in the treatment of obesity and overweight, in a group of Spanish subjects.
Adherence to medication, diet, and activity recommendations: from assessment to maintenance. ]
7.11: web: low-carb's effect on testosterone:
peak resistance training needs more carb's:
. many low-carb enthusiasts are eager to
point out that fat intake can help produce
high testosterone levels,
great for muscle gain and fat loss.
But weight training on a low-carb diet
raises cortisol that suppresses testosterone:
Influence of dietary carbohydrate intake
on the free testosterone:cortisol ratio responses
to short-term intensive exercise training.
. one group consumed a diet in which
calories 60 % carb diet
vs calories 30 % carb diet
[ that is a moderate carb level
(a low carb has less than 20g carb per day,
and 80calories is 10% of calories at 800 cal per day).]
[. while a Zone Diet(30%carb cal's)
has a normal testosterone and cortisol level;
moving to a much lower-fat higher-carb diet
(60% of calories from carbs)
can raise free testosterone by about a third
and lower cortisol by about 15% .]
Hutchinson @lowcarber.org Jun-17-10, 02:42
> Lane, AR, Duke, JW, Hackney, AC.
> Influence of dietary carbohydrate intake
> on the free testosterone:cortisol ratio responses
> to short-term intensive exercise training.
However this study did NOT first
correct 25(OH)D status.
Men with higher 25(OH)D levels
have higher testosterone levels
and therefore would be better able to
deal with cortisol:
[ Association of vitamin D status
with serum androgen levels in men.
. Men with sufficient 25(OH)D levels
(> or =30 microg/l)
had significantly higher levels of
testosterone and FAI
and significantly lower levels of SHBG
when compared to 25(OH)D insufficient
(20-29.9 microg/l)
and 25(OH)D-deficient men
(<20 microg/l)  (P < 0.05 for all).
Randomized controlled trials are warranted
to evaluate the effect of
vitamin D supplementation
on androgen levels. ]
The association between vitamin D
and inflammation with the 6-minute walk
and frailty in patients with heart failure.
shows that people with higher 25(OH)D
are better able to perform physically
and have lower cortisol levels.
...
Jun-17-10, 06:50
Interesting to see that Testosterone concentration
was higher in Olive Oil and Coconut groups
compared with Soy or Grapeseed .