2011-08-29

#health #legume max bean zone diet #hormonics

Mastering the Zone: The Next Step in Achieving SuperHealth and Permanent Fat Loss 8.10: news.health/zone/dr.sears
/whole beans are not zone protein

Dr.Sears`Mastering the zone, p10:
. bean protein digestion
is significantly incomplete
(in a typical nonanimal source of protein,
only 75 % of the protein is absorbed) .
[8.10:
. even if you did get
most of the bean's protein,
do you get the Zone diet's
glucagon-raising effect?
. the protein is raising glucagon
to spur the liver to produce brain fuel .]

. beans carry massive carb's;
so, consider them to be one of your carb's .
--[ perhaps he was just sympathising with
the popular conception that beans are
too gassy for a high-stress situation;
8.11: but,
if you got all your carb's from beans
(say, 80g of carb for one needing 60g protein),
then beans give 32g of protein;
and 70% of 32g absorbed is 24g
-- which is 40% of your 60g allotment!
just overlooked?! . he also says
never go over your protein allotment,
because it's a drug with consequences,
so, all considered, he might really mean
you should make beans just a side dish ?
8.27:
. in this article,
I find how to maximize the use of bean protein,
making sure the protein is balanced;
and determining how much is excreted with the fiber .
. finally I try to find what can be added
in order to raise glucogon without much insulin .]
8.29: summary:
. in a previous article on complete protein,
I had cited nutritiondata.com to show that
beans have complete protein
(important because beans = longevity);
however, growth optimization studies in rats
have shown that beans are short on
methionine, tryptophan, and, surprisingly,
could even use help with lysine
due to either the form or its required cooking .
. see bottom of this page, for a table of
amino acid percentages of various proteins .


. a near-cup of dried bean (for a 160lb sedentary)
has near the day's 80g carb's;
but only 30g of the needed 60g protein .
NOW Foods Eggwhite Protein, 1.2 Pound. egg is the perfect whole food
to mix with black or red beans;
2 per day contribues 12.5 gm protein
(using more will overdo poly'fats).
. spirulina contributes 3g protein
(I use it only as a beta-carotene supp)
and that leaves 14.5g to be filled by
whey, chicken, or egg whites, ...


. eggs have a perfect insulin/glucagon response;
and balanced beans are perfect too;
ie, when the shorted amino's are added
(one measure of a good insulin/glucagon response
are good cholesterol ratios,
whereas, imbalanced proteins tend to cause
bad cholesterol ratios);
. yolks can smell bad mixed with fiber,
so I eat the raw yolks separately,
and then use the whites to cool the beans
(conversely, the beans are cooking the whites).

8.10: the details:
100g black turtle bean soup (65.74g water):

8.18 protein 
19.05 Carbohydrate, (= 24.35g total - 5.3fiber)
--[Total carbohydrate values
include total dietary fiber]

8.18: web: black beans by volume:
. Dr.Sears' optimal limit on carb's
was 3g protein per 4g carb; so,
carb's will be the upper limit on beans;
the shortage of protein makes room for
some egg, whey, or gelatin .
--
comparing Dr.Sears to USA`RDA
for protein, fiber, and carb's:
0.8g/kg protein (36g/100 lb, 54g/150 lb)
100g carb's (400 calories)
14g fiber/1000 kcal .
Dr.Sears:
. if allowed 60g protein,
then the optimal carb is 60*4/3 = 80g .
. one cup of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)
(Beans, black, mature seeds, raw)
41.90 * 0.71 digestibility* = 29.75 g protein;
120 - 30fiber = 90g insulin-provoking carb;
. so a cup of dried beans
is the whole day's carb's,
and half the day's protein (short 30g protein) .
. the [biological value]* as tested by rat growth
depends on added methionine, lysine, and tryptophan .
*:
Brit. J . Nutr. (1963), 17,69
. this is a measure of how much is absorbed .
8.25:
. 90g carb, 30g fiber, 42g protein, 11g water
90+30+42-11 = 151g of bean flour has max carbs .
8.27:
. concerning the protein completeness
as determined by rat growth maximization,
151g of bean flour should get additions of
# 0.2% methionine (0.2/100* 151g) = 302mg
# 0.1% lysine (0.1/100* 151g) = 151mg
# 0.1% tryptophan (0.1/100* 151g) = 151mg .

. in case the rat amino mix needs differ,
compare this to the FAO/WHO/UNU estimate
of what preschool-age children need
(mg Amino acid per g crude protein):
# Total sulfur amino acids
(methionine & cysteine) = 25
-- vs rat(302+ 631 + 456)/29.75 = 46.7
-- vs bean (631 + 456)/29.75 = 36.5
-- egg (190 + 136)/6.28 = 51.9
-- whey (38+46)/17.5 = 4.8
# Tryptophan = 11
-- vs rat (151+497) / 29.75 = 22
-- vs bean 497 / 29.75 = 16.7
-- egg 83/6.28 = 13
Life Extension Enhanced Whey Protein, Natural, 2.20-Pounds-- whey 33/17.5 = 1.88
# Lysine = 58
-- vs rat (151+2877) /29.75 = 102
-- vs bean 2877/29.75 = 96*
-- egg 456/6.28 = 72.6
-- whey 1510/17.5 = 86.3
*(bean lysine looks plentiful,
but it's denatured by required cooking
and therefore has less biological value;
so, adding animal protein
will make beans more efficient
--less stress on kidneys;
safest raw animal protein is egg
and certain brands of whey).]-27


[8.21: sulphurs and valine:
8.27: ... tryptophan and lysine not valine:

. eggs are good source of everything;
. a large egg 50g (6.28 protein)
has
456mg Lysine;
136 mg cystine or cysteine,
+ 190 mg methionine
= 326 essential shorted sulfers;
83mg Tryptophan .

. whey is a good source of lysine:
. 20g of lef.org whey (17.5g protein),
has
1510mg lysine
84mg of sulfer (38mg methionine + 46mg cystine)
33mg tryptophan .

. gelatin is no complement of beans;
but if you were tired of bean fiber,
gelatin will complement eggs & whey:
. 7g of gelatin (5.99 protein)
has
242mg lysine;
42 + 0 mg Methionine & cystine;
0 tryptophan .]
8.12: web: insulin index:
An insulin index of 38 common foods:
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition November 1997 (pdf)
The portion size of each food tested contained 240 calories.
Each food was given a score relative to
white bread used as a reference at 100 %
explanatory notes:
. we measured glycemic scores
and insulin scores for 1000 kJ portions of foods.
They are not GI values.
In a healthy person that has fasted
for more than 10-12 hours overnight,
cheese and steak can cause
a small rise in blood glucose
in the second hour of our 2 hour test periods
due to gluconeogenesis.
[so we have here a glucagon index!]
Also the normal fluctuations in blood glucose
around the fasting value that our experiments start from
produce some area above the fasting blood glucose level,
which is used to calculate both GI and glycemic score values .
(insulin, glucagon) index:
20, 12 peanut
31, 42 egg -- arachadonic acid (limit 2 per day?);
59, 28 fish -- in the zone with omega-3;
45, 55 cheese -- but casein has other problems;
51, 21 beef
58, 62 lentil -- contains glucose*
(the 62 is not a glucagon number).
== insulin index of carb'rich foods ==
62 brown rice
79 white rice
120, baked beans (with sugar)
121 potatoes
160 jelly beans .

glucagon index for whey
. whey brings blood glucose down
compared to ham+lactose .
. it has a high insulin index,
(due to its branched chain amino acids (BCAAs):
leucine, isoleucine, and valine)
[and an apparently less than ideal
glucagon index] .

. whey protein isolate has 50% more leucine
than soy protein isolate.
also more than egg, and milk(casein+whey) .
. whey protein stimulates the release of
two appetite-suppressing hormones
more so than casein:
cholecystokinin (CCK)
glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1);
[so, if you find milk satisfying,
you'll be ok with whey too?
8.29:
. the primary determinant of appetite-suppression
is minimizing insulin surges and resistance .]

Medical Hypotheses Volume 35, Issue 4, August 1991, Pages 324-329
Plasma amino acids and the insulin/glucagon ratio
as an explanation for the dietary protein modulation
of atherosclerosis

Casein induces a high postprandial insulin/glucagon ratio
among hyper.cholesterol.emic subjects.
Soy protein induces a low postprandial insulin/glucagon ratio
in all subjects, and is hypo.cholesterolemic .
[8.25:
. perhaps that is why egg's are
so good at bringing cholesterol down
-- despite containing so much of it:
eggs have a very low insulin/glucogon ratio ...
31/42 for egg, vs 51/21 beef,
vs 45/55 cheese, 59/28 fish .]

. serum cholesterol levels are
decreased by (the soy look:)
arginine and glycine
and increased by [the whey look:]
lysine and branched-chain amino acids .

Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that
the control of cholesterol by insulin and glucagon
is regulated by dietary and plasma amino acids.
8.26: web: glucogon index:
J Nutr. 2002 Aug;132(8):2174-82.
. we examined insulin and glucagon responses
after intake of protein solutions containing
the same amount of nitrogen (2.9 g each)
in three men and three women.
Four test meals (600 mL)
[glucose (419 kJ/L), pea (PPH)
and whey peptide hydrolysates (WPH)
(921 and 963 kJ/L, respectively)
and a cow's milk solution ([milk])
containing complete milk proteins (2763 kJ/L)
] .
Peptide hydrolysates are absorbed faster
than complete proteins (P < 0.05);
and, despite the higher carbohydrate of milk,
the peptide hydrolysates insulin response
was {2, 4} times greater than
the { milk, glucose } respectively (P < 0.05).

The insulin response was closely related to
leucine, isoleucine, valine,
phenylalanine and arginine;
regardless of the rate of gastric emptying.
The three protein solutions elicited
similar increases of plasma glucagon;
however, the response was fastest for
both peptide hydrolysates (P < 0.05)
and more prolonged for the milk (P < 0.05).

. the glucagon response was most related to
tyrosine (r = 0.82-0.98, P < 0.05)
and methionine (r = 0.98, P < 0.001);
Di Pasquale`Amino acids and proteins for the athlete: the anabolic edge
.  raising glucagon without raising insulin
was found by one study to happen only with
ornithine, lysine,
and glycine?
. from another reference the author states
alanine, glycine, serine (neutral straight-chains)
raise both insulin and glucagon
with greater activity by shorter c-chain amino's .

. other ref's said glucagon is enhanced esp'ly by
alanine, arginine,
and leucine?
. from another reference the author states
leucine is found to raise only insulin !
[the preceding source agrees].

. glucagon is raised by
adrenalin, exercise, hypo-glycemia
gh, glucocorticoids, endorphins .
. glucagon is lowered by
insulin, somatostatin and hyper-glycemia .
. glucagon may synergize with catecholamines
prolonging its generation of glucose .
. corticotrophin-releasing factor,
vasopressin, and catecholamines
raise ACTH
raises glucocorticoid
raises catecholamines;
but the catecholamine's infinite loop is
limited by glucocorticoid rises supressing ACTH .
8.12: web: insulin index
/The metabolic response to ingested glycine:

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,
Vol. 76, No. 6, 1302-1307, December 2002
Glycine strongly raised glucagon
unless combined with glucose .
Glycine modestly raised insulin;
yet it dramatically reduced glucose;
glycine may compete with glucose ?

. arginine is the most potent insulin secretagogue
among single aminos;
yet, a combination of all essential aminos
is more potent, indicating synergism;
the most potent combination we found (gelatin)
had a higher than usual percentage of glycine .

Overall, the data suggest that oral glycine
stimulates the secretion, directly or indirectly,
of a gut hormone that potentiates or is additive with
the effect of insulin in stimulating
the removal of glucose from the circulation.
It also inhibits the effect of glucagon
on endogenous glucose production.
8.18: web: black beans by volume:
brit. j.ntur (1963), 17, 69,
Effect of cooking and of amino acid supplementation

. phaseolus vugaris L is 20.. 30% of the protein
in the working class central american diet .
. the tested 1kg of bean was cooked with 2 liter water
in a pressure cooker at 16lb pressure (121C)
for various times between 10 .. 180 min:
. longer cooking reduced more anti-nutrients
but cooking for more than than 30min
reduced the nutritive value or in some other way
caused less weight gain in the test rats .
. feed testing showed beans strongly needed
methionine 0.20% (of the bean flour)*
-- or Cysteine plus methionine;
bean usability could also benefit from
an 0.10% addition of lysine and tryptophan
*:
the original amino content of the bean flour:
0.19% meth
1.68% lysine
1.81% valine

protein efficiency ratio (PER)
= growth g per protein g fed;
--. food conversion efficiency
= growth g per food g fed .

biological value (BV):
. The percentage BV of egg protein is only 93.7%
which allows other proteins with true percentage BV
between 93.7% and 100% to take a relative BV of over 100.
For example, whey protein takes a relative BV of 104,
while its percentage BV is under 100%.

. the greater rat growth on beans (PER)
when supplemented with lysine and tryptophan
may have been due to
incomplete physiological availability
of both amino acids in unsupplemented cooked beans .
This view is supported, at least for lysine,
by the finding that there is a
decrease in the content of
free e-amino groups of lysine
of the bean flour during cooking.

. the fiberous black bean has a digestibility of 71
and methionine supp'ing moves the biological value
from 64 to 90% utilization of what is absorbed;
adding tryptophan and lysine results in 92% .

Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS)

The formula for calculating the PDCAAS percentage is:
(mg of limiting amino acid in 1 g of test protein
/ mg of same amino acid in 1 g of reference protein)
* fecal true digestibility percentage.

The PDCAAS value is different from
measuring the quality of protein from the
protein efficiency ratio (PER)
and the biological value (BV) methods.
The PER was based upon the
amino acid requirements of growing rats,
which noticeably differs from that of humans.
The PDCAAS allows evaluation of
food protein quality based on
the needs of humans
as it measures the quality of a protein
based on the amino acid requirements
(adjusted for digestibility)
of a 2- to 5-year-old child (considered to be
the most nutritionally-demanding age group).
The BV method uses nitrogen absorption as a basis.
However,
it does not take into account
certain factors influencing the digestion of the protein
and is of limited use for application to
human protein requirements because
what is measured is
maximal potential of quality
and not a true estimate of
quality at requirement level.
Nevertheless,
BV can be used to assess requirements of protein
derived from foods with known quality differences
and measure the proportion of
absorbed nitrogen which is retained
and presumably used for protein synthesis
as an accurate indicator for protein measurement.
Using the PDCAAS method,
the protein quality rankings are determined by
comparing the amino acid profile
of the specific food protein
against a standard amino acid profile with the
highest possible score being a 1.0.
This score means, after digestion of the protein,
it provides per unit of protein 100 % or more
of the indispensable amino acids required.

PDCAAS of legumes:
0.91    soybeans -- fatty and poisonous
0.78    chickpeas -- fatty
0.70    Other legumes -- fiberous protein .

chickpeas have better value than blackbeans?
cup chickpeas = 200g
(Chickpeas (garbanzo beans, bengal gram), mature seeds, raw)
38.60 protein121.30 g total carb (34.8 is fiber, 21.40 are Sugars)
12.08 g fat:
# 1.252 g saturated
# 2.716 g monounsaturated
# 5.388 g polyunsaturated   
( 5.186 Linoleic acid(LA)(18:2, n-6)
 or Conjugated fatty acids .
-- used in the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid (AA)
, 0.202 GLA(18:3, n-6)or {Conjugated fatty acids, mead acid, Pinolenic acid} .
)
-- far exceeds adequite intake of Linoleic acid:
United Kingdom Reference Nutrient Intakes
minimum consumption of 1% of calories from linoleic acid
and 0.2% from alpha-linolenic acid.
For a 1500-calorie diet, that means:
1.67 g of linoleic acid (18:2(n-6))
0.33 g of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 (n-3))

[8.27: poly's of a 50g large egg: (you can have 2)
766 mg linoleic acid (18:2 n-6 c,c)
18 mg alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3 c,c,c)
24 mg (18:3 {Conjugated fatty acids, mead acid, Pinolenic acid})
6 mg GLA (18:3 n-6 c,c,c) -- good eicosanoids
11 mg DGLA (20:3 n-6) -- good eicosanoids
778 mg(18:2 Conjugated fatty acids)
94 mg (20:4 {Eicosatetraenoic acid, Arachidonic acid} )
-- bad eicosanoids ?
29mg DHA (22:6 n-3) -- very good;
-- much more DHA if not grain-fed .
6 mg (18:2 trans fat) -- bad but tiny .
6 mg CLAs (18:2) -- some forms are good
11 mg (20:3 {n-3, n-9})
7mg Adrenic acid (22:4)
4mg DPA (22:5 n-3) .]

Quantifying the Digestibility of Dietary Protein
(Journal of Nutrition. 2000;130:1850S-1856S.)
[8.21:
apparent digestability differs by method:
. actual protein absorption
is done in the small intestine;
but the large intestine can cause a further loss
due to use by microbes .
--. this is why bean protein losses
are actually beneficial:
the products of protein-fed microbes
are what prevent heart disease ..
(8.29:
what about bean prevents colon cancer?) .]

. apparent digestibility is a measure of
how much protein was not absorbed;
True digestibility is a measure of
how much of the apparently wasted protein
is actually from internal sources
(shedding of cells, addition of bile, etc).
. Real digestibility takes into account that
depending on the food, there can be
differing amounts of endogenous protein excreted .

Quantifying the Digestibility of Dietary Protein
The calculation of theoretical apparent, true, and real
digestibility coefficients for the total nitrogen (N)
in either a skim milk or soy protein diet:
(Skim milk, Soy protein isolate)
I = Intake (40 g N)
-- Ileal output (g N) --
UN = 2.0 Undigested dietary N
B= 1.5 Basal endogenous N
X= {0, 2.0} Extra endogenous N
-- digestibility --
Apparent {I- [UN+ B+ X]}/I
0.91    0.86
True {I- [(UN+ B+ X)- B]}/I
0.95    0.90
Real {I- [(UN+ B+ X)- B- X]}/I
0.95    0.95
[8.21:
FAO's bean limits compared to egg:
Tryptophan is 63% of egg's;
Valine is another limiting amino;
sulfer containing aminos is 34% of egg's
-- bean's sulfer amino's per total protein
is 47% that of egg's

essential Methionine's end products:
. methionine is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of
cysteine, carnitine, taurine, lecithin, phosphatidylcholine,
-- the need for Methionine can be reduced by
supplementing with these Methionine products .
. (Methionine + Cysteine)/day/kg =
10.4 + 4.1 =1.05 g sulfer aminos / 154lb person .]

8.29: spirulina:

Spirulina's amino composition (vs egg):
-- these numbers differ from Challem's
(crude protein(%N*6.25) 71%(average)) [in brackets].
Cysteine ([0.7]0.9%/2.5),
Methionine (2.0[2.2]%/3.6),
Histidine ([1.1]1.6%/2.2),
Phenylalanine ([4.0]4.5%/6.0),
Arginine ([6.0]7.4%/5.6),
Alanine ([5.8]8%/6.6),
Aspartic Acid ([6.4]10.2%/8.9),  Glutamic Acid ([8.9]15.5%/13.5),
Glycine ([3.5]5.0%/3.6), Lysine ([4.0]5.2%/6.2),
Isoleucine ([4.1]5.3%/6.0), Leucine ([5.8]9.1%/8.5),
Proline ([3.0]4.1%/3.8), Serine ([4.0]5.0%/7.3),
Threonine ([4.2]5.0%/4.4), Tryptophan ([1.1]1.4%/1.4),
and Valine ([6.0]6.0%/7.0), Tyrosine ([4.6]4.2%/2.7) .

Spirulina, the Edible Microorganism
MICROBIOLOGICAL REVIEWS, Dec. 1983, p. 551-578
American Society for Microbiology
Arthrospira (=Spirulina) platensis. blue algae 65% protein
S. maxima (= S. geitleri), another variety, 70% protein
nutritive value of spirulina platensis (vs casein):
protein efficiency ratio : 1.8/2.5
(growth per protein intake)
net protein utilization: 62%/83%
(not excreted)
digestibility coefficient: 83/95
(absorbed protein)
biological value: 75/87
-- "(as good as legumes)
Becker, E. W. 1978.
The legislative background for utilization of
microalgae and other types of single cell protein.
Arch. Hydrobiol. 11:56-64.
safety issues:
Various forms of blue-green algae can be
naturally contaminated with highly toxic substances
called microcystins.30,31,35
30. Pouria S, de Andrade A, Barbosa J, et al.
Fatal microcystin intoxication in haemodialysis unit in Caruaru, Brazil.
Lancet. 1998;352:21-26.
31. Gilroy DJ, Kauffman KW, Hall RA, et al.
Assessing potential health risks from microcystin toxins 
in blue-green algae dietary supplements.
Environ Health Perspect. 2000;108:435-439.
35. Jochimsen EM, Carmichael WW, An JS, et al.
Liver failure and death after exposure to microcystins
at a hemodialysis center in Brazil.
N Engl J Med. 2003;338:873-878.

Blue-green algae can also contain anatoxin.36
36. Astrachan NB, Archer BG, Hilbelink DR.
Evaluation of the subacute toxicity
and teratogenicity of anatoxin-a.
Toxicon. 1980;18:684-688.

. if spirulina is grown in animal waste fertilizers,
contamination with dangerous bacteria could occur.
There are also concerns that spirulina
might concentrate radioactive ions found in its environment.29
29. Facts and Comparisons. Spirulina Monograph.
The Review of Natural Products.February 1998.
Probably of most concern is spirulina's ability to
absorb and concentrate heavy metals
such as lead and mercury, 34
34. Slotton DG, Goldman CR, Franke A.
Commercially grown spirulina found to contain
low levels of mercury and lead.
Nutr Rep Int. 1989;40:1165-1171.
8.29: beans in the Okinawan diet:

. Okinawan elders were found to use
33 mg of isoflavone per day ?
if fermented soy is their only bean,

then the amount containing 33mg isoflavones
is (7.4g protein, 8 g carb, 2.7g fiber),
-- so the bean is a trivial source
of Okinawan longevity .

. the other healthy carb-rich food is
the Okinawan Purple sweet potato
-- among Dr.Mehmet Oz's "Top 5 Superfood for 2010"
. a pair of Okinawan 105yr twin females
denied they ate like the books about the Okinawan diet;
rather they they ate a lot of "(yams);
they enjoyed pork, and cooked with pork fat .
(I wonder if it matters what the pigs are fed;
USA`pigs get a lot of moldy corn ).