. where is the legumes = longevity study?
--. it's a pdf copy of:
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13(2):217-20.
Legumes: the most important dietary predictor of survival
in older people of different ethnicities.
Darmadi-Blackberry I, Wahlqvist ML, Kouris-Blazos A,
Steen B, Lukito W, Horie Y, Horie K.
Public Health Division, National Ageing Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.
To identify protective dietary predictors amongstThe longevity benefits of
long-lived elderly people (N= 785),
the "Food Habits in Later Life "(FHILL) study
was undertaken among five cohorts in
Japan, Sweden, Greece and Australia.
Between 1988 and 1991,
baseline data on food intakes were collected.
There were 785 participants aged 70 and over
that were followed up to seven years.
Based on an alternative Cox Proportional Hazard model
adjusted to age at enrollment (in 5-year intervals),
gender and smoking,
the legume food group showed 7-8% reduction in
mortality hazard ratio for every 20g increase in daily intake
with or without controlling for ethnicity
(RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.85-0.99
and RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.87-0.99, respectively).
Other food groups were not found to be
consistently significant in predicting
survival amongst the FHILL cohorts.
the mediterranean food pattern:
The conclusion from all these studiesThe protective role of LEGUMES
is that if you follow a more
Mediterranean food pattern
(especially in your old age)
you will most probably live longer
- even if you are not of mediterranean ancestry.
Also, a study published by our
past PhD student at Monash University
(Dr Irene Darmadi-Blackberry)
showed that the legume food group
in the mediterranean diet score
conferred the greatest impact on longevity
in comparison to the other food groups
in older Greeks, Swedes, Japanese and Anglo-Celts.
So try to have a legume based meal
at least once a week .
and link to longevity
. of all the food groups,
legumes are the most important food group
conferring longevity .
The ABC radio "Health Report" (1/11/2004)
The protective role of legumes in the diet
interviewed Dr Irene Darmadi-Blackberry about the
legume research conducted at Monash University.
Dr Irene Darmadi-Blackberry
National Ageing Research Institute
This research was initiated and coordinated by
HEC's Professor Mark Wahlqvist
and Dr Antigone Kouris-Blazos
and published March 2004 in
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition .
One of the several important findings
from this international elderly study
was that a higher legume intake
is the most protective dietary predictor
of survival amongst the elderly,
regardless of ethnicity.
. we looked at elders' food intakes for 7 years,
to see whether their food intakes actually are
similar to the Mediterranean diet or not,
whether that diet is going to be beneficial
for their survival or not.
. we found that across cultures,
for every 20 grams more legumes daily,
you actually reduce your risk of death
by around 8% more over seven years.
legumes (aka pulses, Dal, Dahl, Dhal, Daal)
includes not only beans, but also
string beans, chickpeas, peas, lentils,
and soy[but cultures that thrived on soy
would ferment it, and add fishoil
to counteract the high amounts of omega-6 in soy;
peanuts are not mentioned because they are
low in protein?
peanuts are high in poly's like soy
(better eggs than peanuts):
mono, poly, sat:
72%, 10.5%, 13.8% = olive
46.4%, 16.2%, 37.4% = egg (trace trans fats)
46%, 32%, 17% = peanut
22%, 57.7%, 15.6% = soy
28.7%, 3.7%, 62% = butter (high trans fats).]
Anglo Celtic Australians may have baked beans;
and the Japanese may have natto[fermented soy].
. a high monounsaturated to saturated fat ratio
reduces risk of dying within 7 years
by more than 40%,
and that’s only just for one ratio increment.
but it's not more significant than legume gains;
it's just a measure of avoiding poisons:
sat'fats are insulin resistors;
calories not taken as mono'fats
are usually replaced with insulin provokers .
. legumes, on the other hand,
can provide more gains per cost,
without worrying about oil-based contaminants
that could raise risks .]
Dr Irene Darmadi-Blackberry:
-- Research Fellow at the
-- National Ageing Research Institute in Melbourne.
. try to eat different variety of foods,
and you should try to follow the elements of the Mediterranean diet,
so you don’t need to eat Greek dishes,
but you need to try to follow the
elements of the Mediterranean diet,
including your legumes in your daily diet,
and also if you can substitute your oil
with the olive oil.
Blackberry-Darmadi I et al. Legumes:
the most important dietary predictor of survival
in older people of different ethnicities.
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;13(2):217-220
ways to reduce the wind/bloating by:
# add herbs:
(e.g thyme, rosemary, sage, fennel)
# soak beans overnight, and discard soaking water .
. the lead of the 2004 study, Darmadi-Blackberry,
was not the lead of a subsequent similar study:
Does diet matter for survival in long-lived cultures? (pdf)
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2005;14(1):2-6.(abstract)
. that study was reconfirming the significance
of the Mediterranean Diet:
diet [as opposed to genetics and environment]. a few years before Darmadi-Blackberry's
operates irrespective of,
and together with other factors
as an appreciable contributor to survival,
with a strength comparable to or greater than
all other measured variables.
The independence and strength of the
predictiveness of food pattern for survival,
and for this to be cross-cultural
from Europe to Asia is a novel and important observation
for food and health policy.
The Traditional Mediterranean Diet (TMD) score
developed by Trichopoulou et al.,
has been shown to significantly reduce
the risk of death amongst elderly
[in several diverse cultures and races].
. in the 1960s, this Greek variant of the TMD
was characterized by
high consumption of olive oil
(as a primary source of fat),
high intakes of plant foods
(legumes, vegetables, ... cereal&fruit-nuts),
low intake of animal foods
(meat, milk and dairy products)
and moderate alcohol consumption.
a similar method was adapted in the FHILL study
by including a food group for fish
to describe the Mediterranean Diet (MD).
A gender-specific median value
was used as a cut-off point
and each food group intake
above the median
(vegetables, legumes, fruits and nuts, cereals, fish,
and Mono'fat/Sat'fat ratio)
or below the median
(milk and dairy, meat and meat products, and alcohol)
The scores from all food groups
were summed into a MD score,
which ranged between 0 and 9.
It was hypothesized that a more varied diet
with four or more of these food groups
would have a beneficial longevity effect
and would resemble
more closely the Mediterranean Diet.
Greeks in Greece had the highest mortality risk
whereas Greeks in Australia had the lowest risk ?
Greeks in Australia were self-rated higher in
health, social activity and network scores;
and on average, they consumed more
vegetables, legumes, meat and fish
--[ likely implied less cereals .]
2004 legume paper,
she was also a non-leading author of this:
Age-fitness. How achievable with food? 2001 (pdf)
Prof Mark Wahlqvist, Darmadi-Blackberry I, et al.
International Health and Development Unit
Wellington Rd, Clayton 3800, Melbourne, Australia
. 32% of the variance for skin wrinkling
in a sun-exposed site was predicted by
Older people with less skin wrinkling
were generally found to have better health
(higher general health score),
less functional disabilities
(higher activities of daily living score)
and a higher dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) level.(24)
For FHILL cohorts overall higher intakes of
legumes, fish, shellfish, and olive oil
(and the corresponding monounsaturated:saturated fat ratio)
were significant predictors of survival in later life.
Interestingly, quite different food patterns exist in
all of the five relatively long-lived food cultures
studied for survival.
But in the three longest living
( Greeks in Australia
, Japanese in Japan,
, Swedes in Sweden)
fish consumption is the highest in two of these three.
The Anglo-Celtic Australians may compensate for their
relatively low fish intakes
by relatively higher intakes of
vegetables, fruits and nuts and meat.
Where olive oil is consumed less,
in Swedes in Sweden and Anglo-Celtic Australians,
dairy products are consumed relatively more.
Japanese in Japan not only have the most fish,
the most cereals, and alcohol
but are equal highest consumers of legumes
with Greeks in Australia.
The differences as well as the commonalties
are instructive as to the extent to which
food categories, on the one hand,
and food patterns on the other,
may confer longevity.
The overall survival data indicate that
legumes and fish[not just omega-3,
but also sure minerals, esp'ly selenium .]
are the most cohesive food predictors of survival,
both conferring favourable prediction .