pim/calendar/4/13 usa'architect Jefferson b'day
Jefferson was a Free* American Founding Father,
the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776)
and the third President of the United States (1801–1809).
He was a spokesman for democracy and the rights of man
. the first United States Secretary of State (1790–1793)
serving under President George Washington.
In opposition to Alexander Hamilton's Federalism,
Jefferson and his close friend, James Madison,
organized the Democratic-Republican Party,
and subsequently resigned from Washington's cabinet.
*: [ there are at least 2 "Americans":
the Latinos (latin is the language of Catholics)
and the Free-thinkers (deists, Freemasons).]
. the Democratic-Republican Party,
aka Jefferson's Republican Party
is named after Republicanism:
a limited democracy asserting that people have
unalienable rights -- esp'ly to certain liberties --
that cannot be voted away by the majority .
. it rejects aristocracy and inherited political power,
expects citizens to be independent (fair and impartial)
in their performance of civic duties,
and vilifies corruption (bribes, puppets, secret societies)).
. Jefferson republicans opposed the Federalist Party
especially Hamilton's unconstitutional national bank;
they favored states' rights
and the primacy of the land-owning farmers.
. Jeffersonians saw republicanism as being threatened by
monarchical tendencies of the Hamiltonian Federalists
who were supporting primarily bankers and businessmen
with a national bank, tariffs(taxation of imports),
and good relations with Britain (former owner of Free america).
. the purpose of the Hamiltonian national bank
was to assume the state debts incurred during
the American Revolution against Britain,
creating a national debt and the means to pay it off .
[. if they didn't pull together to take on the debt
they would be seen as one nation anyway
and international market share would suffer
if they allowed a national loan default .]
Jefferson's Republican Party split after 1824:
the Democratic Party (states rights anti-federalist)
followed Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren:
. Jeffersonians opposed inherited elites
but favored educated men
while the Jacksonians gave little weight to education,
and extended voting rights beyond landowners
to nearly all hieuropean ("white") males .
. Jacksonian democracy strengthened the executive branch
at the expense of Congressional power,
while also demanding direct election of judges .
. they opposed government-granted monopolies
to banks, especially the national bank;
they wanted Laissez-faire Economics (less federal responsibility)
except for expanding westward,
and removing Native Americans from the Southeast .
. the Democrat Party avoided fragmentation by
taking positions favored by the South [ who were
not interested in federal tariffs or federal anything;
because they sold cotton cheap,
and people who made clothes couldn't boycott them;
it was the Northerners who were quite interested in
protecting their market share with tariffs,
and in having good trade relations with anti-slavery Brits .]
it morphed into the Whig Party, a coalition of Federalists
along with Anti-Masons (Freemasonry [aka illuminati,
which promotes a liberal, dogma-free universal religion ]
was seen as a sort of corruption, a conspiracy that included
many judges, businessmen, bankers, and politicians
who were giving special favors to secret members
instead of being fair and impartial).
. The Whig Party fell apart because it could not
bridge North-South differences on slavery .
. Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress
over the executive branch strengthened by Jackson,
and favored a program of national modernization
and economic protectionism, like Federalists.
Their name meant "opposing the tyranny";
the American rebels of 1776 were called Whigs .
[ in part perhaps a disparaging use of whigg
"a country bumpkin" (1640s);
but mainly a shortened form of Whiggamore (1649)
"one of the Presbyterian western Scots
who marched in 1648 to oppose Charles I" .
Perhaps originally "a horse drover,"
from dialectal verb whig "to urge forward" + mare. ]
. The original Whigs of the UK
were in opposition to the Tories
who supported the gentry [ landlords ].
and the established Church of England;
UK Whigs tolerated nonconformist Protestants
(the "dissenters," such as Presbyterians),
and supported the Protestant Hanoverian succession,
[ where anyone who is or marries a Roman Catholic,
became disqualified to inherit the UK throne;
and Parliament overpowered the monarchy ].
the UK Whigs drew support from the emerging
industrial interests and wealthy merchants,
while the Tories drew support from
the landed interests and the royal family.
By the first half of the 19th century, however,
the UK Whigs supported not only
the supremacy of parliament over the monarch
and support for free trade [no tariffs?],
but also Catholic emancipation, the abolition of slavery
and expansion of the franchise (voting rights for more).