2016-06-07

how is higher linoleic omega-6 oil healthier?

4.13: news.health/diet/hormonics/
how is higher linoleic omega-6 oil healthier?:
4.19: summary:
. if anything "predicts type 2 diabetes"
it is sure to tell you that the studied population
was eating too much grain and sugar.
. this study basically says that
foods with more omega-6 oil were actually helpful
in a group tending to abuse carb's.
. while omega-6 (linoleic acid) may have problems,
a major source of it is nuts and seeds:
a great source of fiber and B vitamins.
. but as for linoleic acid reducing risk of mortality,
can you really get health benefits from
guzzling corn or soy oil?
. also they found palmitoleic acid was bad
whereas that is sold as a health food;
likely they were measuring levels of meat
rather than healthy sources like macadamia nuts.
. this was a study of types of oils found in blood;
that might not be directly related to oils in diet,
due to conversions.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jul;88(1):203-9.
4.13: suprising:
". linoleic acid reduces the mortality risk the most.
The bottom line of the Swedish study confirms
the consensus view of mainstream nutritionists
whereas alternative nutrition experts tell us
omega-6 (including Linoleic acid) is bad
and the health risks of saturated fats
are stories made up by Unilever"
[Unilever was founded in 1930 by the merger of
the Dutch margarine producer Margarine Unie
and the British soapmaker Lever Brothers.]

4.19: ajcn.nutrition.org:
. current dietary recommendations mainly suggest
limiting saturated fat while increasing unsaturated fat.
. fatty acid [FA] composition in serum lipids characterized by
high proportions of palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (16:1),
and dihomo-γ-linoleic (DHLA, 20:3n−6) acids
and a low proportion of linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n−6)
predicts type 2 diabetes (17-19), myocardial infarction (20, 21),
stroke (22), left ventricular hypertrophy (23),
and the metabolic syndrome (24-26).

We also examined whether high proportions of serum LA
are associated with decreased mortality
as reported in a Finnish population.

. the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM)
is a population-based cohort study
that started in Uppsala, Sweden, in 1970.

In the total sample, a 1-StdDeviation increase in
the proportions of serum myristic (14:0),
palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (16:1),
oleic (18:1), γ-linolenic (18:3n−6),
and dihomo-γ-linolenic (DHLA, 20:3n−6) acids
and estimated SCD (Stearoyl-CoA desaturase)
and D6D (Delta(6)-desaturase) activities
were associated with an increased risk of both
cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality,
whereas a high proportion of linoleic acid (LA)
and estimated D5D (Delta(5)-desaturase) activity
was associated with decreased mortality.

When the SCD ratio was estimated as 18:1 / 18:0
[oleic monounsat'oil / Stearic sat'fat]
it was only associated with
an increased risk of total mortality.
[6.7:
. this is surprising because oleic oil is in olive oil
and olive oil is thought to be healthy,
whereas stearic is found in meat,
and meat fat is thought to be unhealthy;
but look at the usual sources of oleic in usa diet:
8.9% Grain-based desserts
7.6% Chicken and chicken mixed dishes
5.9% Sausage, franks, bacon, and ribs
5.4% Pizza
4.9% Fried white potatoes
4.6% Mexican mixed dishes
4.1% Burgers
3.9% Beef and beef mixed dishes
3.3% Regular cheese
3.2% Potato/corn/other chips
3.1% Pasta and pasta dishes
2.6% Salad dressing
2.3% Dairy desserts
2.2% Yeast breads
likely healthy foods:
5.5% Nuts/seeds
3.5% Eggs and egg mixed dishes
]
The proportions of long-chain n−3 fatty acids
—eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n−3)
and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n−3)—
and of stearic acid and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n−6)
were not associated with any mortality risk.
[good news for eggs and fish oil.]

α-Linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n−3)
was nearly associated with cardiovascular disease mortality
in the fully adjusted model (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.21),
P value of 0.06. [low chance of random association]
[6.7:
. usual sources of α-Linolenic acid:
10.5% Salad dressing
6.4% Chicken and chicken mixed dishes
6.1% Grain-based desserts
5.8% Pizza
5% Yeast breads
4% Mayonnaise
3.5% Pasta and pasta dishes
3.4% Quickbreads
2.8% Fried white potatoes
2.7% Mexican mixed dishes
2.6% Burgers
2.6% Margarine
2.6% Regular cheese
2.2% Dairy desserts
2.2% Whole milk
likely healthy foods:
2.7% Nuts/seeds and nut/seed mixed dishes
2.2% Eggs and egg mixed dishes
]
The proportion of serum LA was associated with a
protective effect on both cardiovascular and total mortality.
[6.7:
. LA is essential and used in the biosynthesis of
arachidonic acid (AA) and thus some prostaglandins,
leukotrienes (LTA, LTB, LTC), and thromboxane (TXA).
It is abundant in many nuts, seeds and their derived oils.
. usual sources of LA (linoleic acid):
9.3% Chicken [also large source of bad oils]
6.5% Nuts/seeds and nut/seed mixed dishes
2.8% Eggs [756 mg per 18 g egg yolk].
. if you have high serum levels of LA
it may be because you aren't converting it to AA (arachidonic acid)
-- AA is not healthy according to Dr.Sears.
. making arachidonic is reduced by the use of fish oils.
. we get most of AA here:
26.9% Chicken and chicken mixed dishes
17.8% Eggs and egg mixed dishes
]
Of the individual serum FAs, the greatest mortality risk
was associated with palmitoleic acid,
and the significance remained in the adjusted models.

what are usual sources of bad palmitoleic acid?:
540 mg per 20 g beef or pig fat
. how usual are mac nuts?
3000 mg per per 20 g Macadamia nut
eggs might be healthy too:
104 mg (per 18 g edible portion egg yolk)