. in the late 1800's science was evolving rapidly
and people became excited about "cosmical physics"
but that term seemed to die out after wwI (1919)
when aether theories were seen as disproved,
and Einstein's relativity principle was introduced.
. astrophysics is about objects we can see;
the cosmical physics would include empty space,
and the free energy that is found there.
. I wondered if this avoidance of "cosmical physics"
was to bury history leading to free energy aether theories;
ie, there really is an interest in cosmical physics
but it is now classified a military secret.
. meteorology was not considered a real science?
remember what Dr.Judy Wood said about tornadoes,
that they seemed to involve some Tesla physics,
antigravity and molecular disassociation,
as was seen in the Hutchison effect and 9/11
when the towers were dustified.
Helge Kragh`The rise and fall of cosmical physics:
notes for a history, ca. 1850-1920:
. "cosmical physics" was of interest only from 1890 to 1915
[1915 was the age of Einstein's relativity principle.]
According to Rudolf Wolf, a professor of astronomy in Zurich,
cosmical physics took its beginning in 1852
with the discovery sunspot cycle was correlated to
the frequency of aurorae and the geomagnetic activity on Earth.
The Times, 27 December 1904:
“Cosmical Physics” is a department of science which isThe leading figure in Austrian meteorology at the turn of the century
rapidly growing in favour.
As a subsection of the British Association, for instance,
it is scarcely three years old, owing its birth to
the fusion of the existing subsection of astronomy
with non-existing sections for meteorology, seismology, and magnetism.
was Julius Hann, who was internationally known for his
dynamical theory of cyclones and anticyclones.
[ notice meteorology is not considered a science,
and cyclones involved secret Hutchison effects.]
Not only was Hann instrumental in
promoting and organizing cosmical physics,
it was also due to his efforts that the field became
obligatory in the university exams for would-be teachers in the secondary schools.
Only very few scientists, notably among them
Arrhenius in Sweden and Birkeland in Norway,
were devoted to cosmical physics in its wide sense
that took the word “cosmical” seriously.
On the other hand, their excursions into cosmology and cosmogony
attracted more public than scientific interest.
Although Birkeland rarely used the term “cosmical physics,”
much of his work can be classified as such.
Solar-terrestrial physics was at the heart of
his wide-ranging research programme,
but it was only one part of it.
It also included the weather and climate of the Earth,
geomagnetic storms, cometary tails, planetary rings,
the zodiacal light, the formation of planets and other cosmic phenomena.
For example, he simulated in his laboratory in Oslo the rings of Saturn
and suggested that the planets in the solar system
were formed by electrified matter ejected from the Sun.
To the mind of Birkeland,
the aurora was of cosmological significance
and not merely a phenomenon in the upper atmosphere.
In his grand theory of the solar system,
electromagnetic forces were no less important than
the gravitational force of traditional cosmogony.
[ that's a fundamental position of plasma cosmology:
the galaxies are glued together by electromagnetics
rather than by gravity.]
Not only was the Sun a generator of electrons and ions,
the same was the case with the other stars,
which led Birkeland to speculate that interstellar space
was filled with a tenuous ionized gas – a plasma.
Indeed, his theory was later seen as a precursor of
the so-called plasma universe,
although the term “plasma” had not been coined yet.
[The name “plasma” was introduced by the American
physical chemist Irving Langmuir in 1928. ]
He used his hypothesis – supported by experiments –
to explain such diverse phenomena as the ice ages,
the geological periods, Saturn’s rings,
the eleven-year period of sunspots,
cepheids and other periodically varying stars,
and the spiral nebulae.
Nothing less than a cosmic theory of everything
– a “mechanism of the universe,” he called it –
it further led to the conclusion that
“the worlds [stars and nebulae] in the universe
must be infinite in number.”
[Birkeland 1913b, p. 20.
Like Arrhenius, Birkeland argued against
the standard view of a limited stellar universe
that at the time was held by a majority of astronomers,
according to whom the material universe
was largely identical to the Milky Way system.]
. Swedish physicist Hannes Alfvén, a Nobel laureate of 1970,
developed in the 1960s a cosmological theory based on plasma physics
[Astrophysics and Space Science 1979]
which, he claimed, explained the expansion of the universe
without assuming a violent beginning in a big bang.
[ plasma cosmologies later denied expansion.]
He considered Birkeland to be the first cosmic plasma physicist
and his own work to be in the tradition of Birkeland.
The auroral and cosmical research done by
Birkeland and his associates
attracted public attention
but only limited scientific recognition.
Astronomers ignored his cosmological ideas.
Many scientists considered his theories to be speculative
and based on too easy analogies between
laboratory experiments and natural phenomena.
On the other hand, it was exactly
the experimental basis of Birkeland’s research
that impressed other scientists.
In a public lecture of 1909
the American meteorologist Cleveland Abbe
praised the work of Birkeland and Størmer
on the nature of the aurora and its bearing on the upper atmosphere.
He thought that the theory of the two Norwegians
promised “to carry us from the firm ground of
experimental laboratory physics
over into the equally firm, but unexplored region
of mathematical cosmical physics.”
was cosmical physics associated with meteorological physics?
. the Berlin physicist Friedrich Kohlrausch`
interest in meteorological physics?
"A physicist who goes into meteorology is lost."
There was a time when Meteorology was a*: [ in the Judeochristian tradition,
recognised member of the large physical family
and shared the paternal affection of all professors of Physics;
... The professors of Physics soon recognised that the nest
was not large enough for both,
and … that science was ejected as an Ishmael*.
Electrical engineering has an abundance of academic representatives;
brewing has its professorship and its corps of students,
but the specialised physics of the atmosphere
has ceased to share the academic hospitability.
So far as I know the British universities are unanimous in
dissembling their love for Meteorology as a science. ...
Ishmael is associated with Islam,
the anti-christian and anti-liberal religion.
(is Meteorology a military secret? ...)]
Physical_cosmology (cosmical but not physics):
. cosmology is the study of the
largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe
and is concerned with fundamental questions about
its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.
For most of human history, it was a branch of
metaphysics and religion.
Physical cosmology, as it is now understood,
began with the development in 1915 of
Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity,
followed by major observational discoveries in the 1920s:
first, Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe contains
a huge number of external galaxies beyond our own Milky Way;
popular cosmology believes the universe is expanding:
. Hubble's law finds more distant galaxies have greater redshifts.
One of the key assumptions of plasma cosmology
is that this observation does not indicate an expanding universe.
. plasma cosmology supporters believe in either
the Wolf effect, CREIL[Raman scattering],
or tired light mechanisms, meaning:
the longer light travels, the more it loses energy,
and thus becomes less frequent and red-shifted.
. tired light was a proposed alternative to both
the Big Bang and the Hoyle Steady State cosmologies,
both of which relied on the general relativistic
expansion of the universe of the FRW metric.
2.5: what happened near 1890 to excite cosmical physics?
the Technological Revolution:
. the 1880's occurred at the high point of
the Second Industrial Revolution:
Advancements in manufacturing and production technology
enabled the widespread adoption of
telegraph and railroad networks,
gas and water supply, and sewage systems,
which had earlier been concentrated to a few select cities.
The enormous expansion of rail and telegraph lines
after 1870 allowed unprecedented movement of people and ideas,
which culminated in a new wave of globalization.
The 1880s were part of the Gilded Age:
The usa became a leader in applied technology.
From 1860 to 1890, 500,000 patents were issued
—over 10 times that of the previous 70 years.
Electric power delivery would spread rapidly
replacing oil and gas lighting.
Electric power systems began to incorporate
other features such as heating and electric motors
to run street cars and factories.
Michael Faraday math revealed 1865:
. it was his research on the magnetic field
around a conductor carrying a direct current
that established the basis for the concept of
the electromagnetic field in physics.
he found magnetism could affect rays of light
and that there was an underlying
relationship between the two phenomena.
He similarly discovered the principle of
electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism,
and the laws of electrolysis.
His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices
formed the foundation of electric motor technology,
and it was largely due to his efforts
that electricity became practical for use in technology.
. an excellent experimentalist who conveyed his ideas
in clear and simple language;
his mathematical abilities, however,
did not extend as far as trigonometry and algebra.
James Clerk Maxwell took the work of Faraday and others,
and summarized it in a set of equations
that is accepted as the basis of
all modern theories of electromagnetic phenomena.
James Clerk Maxwell 1865:
With the publication in 1865 of
A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field,
Maxwell proposed that light is an undulation in
the same medium that is the cause of
electric and magnetic phenomena.
1890: Tesla Discovers Wireless Power:
Tesla illuminated a vacuum tube wirelessly
- having transmitted energy through the air.
This was the beginning of Tesla's lifelong obsession
- the wireless transmission of energy.
aether theory is challenged:
The famous Michelson–Morley experiment
The publication of their result in 1887,
the null result, was the first clear demonstration
that something was seriously wrong with
the current understanding of the aether.
Between 1892 and 1904,
Hendrik Lorentz created an electron/aether theory,
In his model the aether is completely motionless.
Contrary to other electron models before,
the electromagnetic field of his aether
appears as a mediator between the electrons,
and changes in this field can propagate
not faster than the speed of light.
A fundamental concept of Lorentz's theory in 1895
was the "theorem of corresponding states"
for terms of order v/c. This theorem states
that a moving observer (relative to the aether)
makes the same observations as a resting observers,
after a suitable change of variables.
Lorentz noticed that it was necessary to
change the space-time variables when changing frames
and introduced concepts like
physical length contraction (1892)
to explain the Michelson–Morley experiment,
and the mathematical concept of local time (1895)
to explain the aberration of light
and the Fizeau experiment.
2014.11.16: 2016.2.6: news.phy/aether/
Dr.Judy Wood`tornadoes generate anti-gravity?:
Michael Vara`Dr. Judy Wood (2hr:27min):
. tornadoes involve antigravity affects;
from the available video evidence we can see
tornadoes don't pick you up like a vacuum cleaner;
because it has people floating in a room with no wind.
. "electricity magnetism and gravity are all
different sides of the same coin"
. from videos of tornadoes in action
I'm seeing why she would believe that:
they are being thrown very high for their weight;
and they are not rising from within the sucking funnel;
some other force must be helping with the rise .
Dr.Judy Wood`Hutchison effects during vortex storms:
. one of the Hutchison effects was to soften materials
so that other objects could be embedded into them
without smashing the the object being embedded;
the alternative explanation is that speeds were so high
that even wood embeds in metal!:
"1.5 inches gate frame was found punctured by a piece of wood
[see Finley J. P. Report on the tornado of May 29 and 30 ,
1879 in Kansas, Nebraska,
Prof. Paper of the signal Service, N 4, 1881, 116p.].
. another aspect of the Hutchison effect
is that when it wasn't cold-melting things
it was causing them to levitate,
and that is also seen during a tornado .
. finally, both the Hutchison effect and the tornado
involve a static field that is generated by
a storm's electrical system or a Tesla coil .
... it may be that Hutchison's static field
was coming from a Van de Graaff generator
rather than a Tesla coil.