2011-07-30

fructose | Chlorella is an antidote

Sun Chlorella Granules 3 grams 100 PacketsNOW Foods Chlorella 1000mg, 120 Tablets7.24: news.health/fructose/Chlorella is an antidote:

. Chlorella is a nutritious
fresh water algae,
popular in Japan and Taiwan
that may reduce Insulin resistance
when used daily in several meals .
. the #1 cause of insulin resistance
is excessive fructose consumption,
according to Dr.Mercola,
referring to the modern diet high in
added fructose+glucose sweeteners .
. a rats-on-fructose-diet study showed
that chlorella undid some of the fructose's
insulin resistance .

. another diabetic rodent study verified
that chlorella improves glucose uptake
in the {liver, muscles};
and, they also may have found a reason for that:
something in chlorella seems to mimic
one of insulin's functions:
chlorella decreased levels of NEFA
(nonesterified fatty acids),
which are the energy units provided by fat cells
for use by the liver and muscles;
NEFA's are insulin resistors like sat'fats
(which is likely by design, since NEFA
is a fuel that muscles should prefer
in order to save the glucose for the brain).
. one study on humans targeted pregnant women;
because, a pregnancy's hormonal changes
tend to increase insulin resistance
which then causes high blood pressure and diabetes .
. 6 grams of chlorella per day,
improved Pregnancy-induced hypertension
and 2 related conditions: proteinuria and edema .
. it also reduced the risk of anemia
(a low count of red blood cells
requiring iron and b-vitamins);
but chlorella is a very expensive way to replace
nature's perfect food, the egg !
. one study of high blood pressure in humans
had less than impressive results;
however, all the subjects had a lifestyle
that raised blood pressure,
and would be using chlorella to replace their
usual blood pressure medication
while continuing other medications and foods
that could possibly raise blood pressure .
. when it comes to the modern diet,
there will likely be no perfect antidote:
susceptible people simply need to
remove what's poisoning them!

table of contents

== chlorella research in humans ==

role of NEFA in normal metabolism:
Adipocytes [fat cells] release
NEFA (nonesterified fatty acids);
this is initiated by the action of
hormone sensitive lipase (HSL),
which begins to hydrolyze the stored triglyceride.
The final products of triacylglycerol hydrolysis
are glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids.
[7.26: Triacylglycerols (triglycerides)
are the most abundant dietary lipids.
They are the form in which we store reduced carbon for energy.
Each triacylglycerol has a glycerol backbone
to which are esterified 3 fatty acids .]
HSL is activated by epinephrine, norepinephrine, ACTH
and glucagon, acting via phosphorylation of the enzyme.
It is inhibited by insulin. [7.26:
because insulin's main job is clearing glucose,
so if it lowers free fatty acids,
the muscles will skip that as fuel
prefering glucose instead .]
NEFA are bound to serum albumin
for transport to other tissues,
where they are used mainly by muscle and liver.

Decreased Susceptibility to Fatty Acid–Induced
Peripheral Tissue Insulin Resistance in Women
. Elevation of plasma NEFA levels
has been shown to induce
peripheral tissue insulin resistance
and impair the suppression of
endogenous glucose production (EGP).
. although the effects on EGP appear comparable in the 2 sexes,
the inhibitory effects of NEFA on
peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity
are observed in men
but cannot be demonstrated in women.

Nutritional supplementation with Chlorella pyrenoidosa
for mild to moderate hypertension.
J Med Food. 2002 Fall;5(3):141-52.
. The objective of this 1998 pilot study
was to determine whether 2 months of
daily dietary supplementation with
10 g Chlorella tablets
and 100 ml Chlorella extract
would reduce blood pressure (BP)
in subjects with a mean sitting diastolic BP (SiDBP)
between 90 and 115 mm Hg .
[. subjects would discontinue blood pressure medication
but could continue other medication and foods
that could possibly raise blood pressure;
eg, premarin can raise blood pressure .]
After 1 or 2 months of dietary Chlorella supplementation,
the average heart rate, sitting systolic BP, and SiDBP
changed only slightly;
However,
a heterogenous response pattern to Chlorella existed,
with 25% (6/24) of the subjects achieving their BP goal
(SiDBP less than 90 mm Hg).
Furthermore, the BP of nonresponders
did not increase significantly above washout values.
Quality-of-life questionnaires indicated
an overall perception that health had significantly improved
in conjunction with Chlorella consumption.
The results indicate that,
for some subjects with mild to moderate hypertension,
a daily dietary supplement of Chlorella
reduced or kept stable their SiDBP.

== rodents on fructose ==

Improvement of Insulin Resistance by Chlorella
in Fructose-rich Chow-fed Rats.
Phytother Res. 2011 Feb 10.
Department of Internal Medicine, Zhongxing
Branch of Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
. Chlorella is a type of unicellular fresh water algae.
In an attempt to develop new agents for
handling insulin resistance,
Chlorella was employed to screen the effect on
insulin resistance in rats induced by fructose-rich chow.
A single oral administration of Chlorella
for 90 min decreased the plasma glucose
in a dose-dependent manner
in rats receiving 4-week fructose-rich chow.
In addition,
chronic treatment with Chlorella for 15 days
also lowered plasma glucose in the same manner.
Then, the insulin action on glucose disposal rate
was measured using the glucose-insulin index,
values of the areas under the curves of
glucose and insulin during the IPGTT test
(intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test).
Oral Chlorella (three times daily for 5 days)
to rats receiving 4 weeks of fructose-rich chow
normalized the elevated glucose-insulin index,
indicating that Chlorella has an ability to
improve insulin resistance [by fructose].
An increase of insulin sensitivity by Chlorella
was further evaluated in STZ-diabetic rats
using the plasma glucose lowering action
of exogenous insulin .
Oral Chlorella three times daily to STZ-diabetic rats
increased the response to exogenous insulin 15 days later.

== rodents with high blood pressure ==

Effect of chlorella and its fractions on
 blood pressure, cerebral stroke lesions,
and life-span in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2006 Dec;52(6):457-66.
Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research,
Tokyo 186-8650, Japan.
. Effects of Chlorella regularis (dried cell powder)
--cultured axenically under heterotrophic conditions,
and provided as a dietary supplement--
and its fractions on the blood pressure,
cerebral stroke lesions, and life-span of
stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP/Izm)
were investigated.
When SHRSP were fed on diets supplemented with Chlorella
elevation of blood pressure was significantly lower
in the Chlorella groups than in the control group.
At 21 wk of feeding, serum total cholesterol was
significantly lower in the Chlorella groups
than in the control group.
Histopathological examination revealed
cerebral vascular accidents in the brains of the control group,
but those of Chlorella groups showed apparently
low incidence compared to the control group.
The average life-span of the Chlorella groups
were significantly longer (p < 0.001).
Chlorella powder was fractionated into three fractions,
lipid-soluble, hot water-soluble, and residual fractions.
The diets supplemented with lipid or residual fractions
equivalent to 10% Chlorella
significantly suppressed elevation of blood pressure in SHRSP,
and then decreased the incidence rate of
cerebral vessel lesions compared to the control group.
Chemical analysis revealed that the lipid fraction
contained large quantities of antioxidants,
including carotenoids (especially lutein) and others,
and phospholipids involved in
aorta collagen and elastin metabolism;
the residual fraction contained high concentrations of
arginine, enhancing the function of blood vessels.
The control diet contained only a little these substances.
These experimental results suggest that
the beneficial effect of Chlorella on SHRSP is caused by
the synergistic action of several ingredients of Chlorella,
which play a role in sustention of a vascular function of rats.

== rodents lacking insulin ==

Improving glycogenesis in Streptozocin (STZ) diabetic mice
after administration of green algae Chlorella.
Life Sci. 2006 Feb 9;78(11):1181-6.
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry,
National Chung-Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan, ROC.
. Chlorella, a type of unicellular fresh water algae,
has been a popular foodstuff in Japan and Taiwan.
Studies have shown Chlorella to have
hypoglycemic effects [lowering high blood sugar]
in alloxan-induced and Streptozocin (STZ)-induced
type-1 diabetic animals. [STZ sickens the cells
that are producing insulin .]
Insulin-stimulated lipogenic rates in
brown and white adipose tissues
were unaffected by Chlorella.
However, in both normal and STZ mice,
Chlorella increased glucose uptake
in the livers and soleus muscles .
. in STZ mice,
Chlorella lowered fasting NEFA levels
[7.26: like insulin does, notice .]
The current results suggest that
the hypoglycemic effects of Chlorella are due to
an enhancement of glucose uptake in the liver
and in soleus muscles.
The improved insulin sensitivity after Chlorella treatment
could be also due to lower NEFA levels,
since insulin sensitivity is usually blunted by
elevated NEFA in diabetes.

Antioxidant and anti-cataract effects of Chlorella on
rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2003 Oct;49(5):334-9.
. Chlorella had decreased the blood levels of
glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c)
[suggesting it controlled blood sugar spikes;]
however, it had not affected
the serum glucose concentration;
[rather, the lack of glycation seemed due to]
Chlorella's strong antioxidant effects .
. it decreased serum cholesterol levels significantly,
and delayed the development of lens opacities .

== rodents on atherogenic diet ==

Attenuating effect of chlorella supplementation
on oxidative stress and NFkappaB activation
in peritoneal macrophages and liver of C57BL/6 mice
fed on an atherogenic diet.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2003 Oct;67(10):2083-90.
School of Food and Life Science and Biohealth
Product Research Center, Inje University,
Obang-dong, Kimhae, Korea.
. This study was designed to investigate whether
chlorella supplementation may ameliorate oxidative stress
and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) activation
in peritoneal macrophages and liver of C57BL/6 mice
fed on an atherogenic diet.
. the results suggest that chlorella supplementation
may attenuate oxidative stress
by reducing reactive oxygen production
and increasing antioxidative processes,
thus suppressing inflammatory mediator activation
in peritoneal macrophages and liver.
The animals were maintained on an atherogenic diet
(control), or an atherogenic diet supplemented with
3% (w/w) chlorella or 5% (w/w) chlorella for 12 wks.
The plasma and hepatic lipid levels
were not affected by chlorella supplementation.
Hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances
and superoxide anion production in peritoneal macrophages
were significantly lower in the 5% chlorella group (p<0.05),
but the glutathione level was not altered by chlorella supplementation.
The hepatic antioxidative enzyme activities of
Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase and catalase
were higher in the mice fed on the 5% chlorella diet (p<0.05).
The plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity was lower
in the mice fed on the chlorella-containing diets (p<0.05),
whereas the alanine aminotransferase activity
was not affected by chlorella supplementation.
The NFkappaB nuclear binding activities
of peritoneal macrophages and liver
were significantly lower in the 5% chlorella groups (p<0.05).

== rodents lacking ovaries ==

A hot water extract of Chlorella pyrenoidosa
reduces body weight and serum lipids in ovariectomized rats.
Phytother Res. 2004 Feb;18(2):164-8.
. Department of Dental Hygiene,
Fukuoka College of Health Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan.
. The effects of a hot water extract of Chlorella pyrenoidosa,
which contains chlorella growth factor (CGF),
on the body weight, serum lipids, and the bone mass
were evaluated using an ovariectomized rat
as a model for postmenopausal bone loss.
These results suggest that a dietary supplement of CGF
may be useful to control the body weight .
. Rats were divided into four groups:
normals and ovariectomized (OVX),
with and without the CGF solution .
. Administration of the extract to OVX rats
suppressed the body weight gain.
but did not prevent the OVX's
19% reduction in tibial bone mineral density .
. the OVX group had changes in lipids:
(-) triglyceride level,
(+) serum total cholesterols
(+) high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterols;
7 weeks of the extract reversed these changes .
[. so the triglyceride/hdl ratio was
improved by ovary loss,
but was somewhat undone by chlorella?
that's roughly an indicator of insulin levels
which should be doing better on a supplement
that is supposed to increase insulin sensitivity .]

== other chlorella news ==

Immunostimulatory bioactivity of algal polysaccharides
from Chlorella pyrenoidosa
activates macrophages via Toll-like receptor 4.
J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Jan 27;58(2):927-36.
Department of Biotechnology and Laboratory Science in Medicine,
National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.
. Chlorella pyrenoidosa (CWSP) is a dietary supplement;
. we report the molecular mechanism of
immune-modulated signal transduction in vitro
from the polysaccharides of Chlorella pyrenoidosa .
Our current results provide support for
the possible use of CWSP as a
modulation agent of immune responses
in humans and certain animal species.
. we also found its major monosaccharides:
rhamnose (31.8%), glucose (20.42%), galactose (10.28%),
mannose (5.23%), and xylose (1.27%).
. certain hot-water-soluble CWSP polysaccharides
have effects on
# cytokine production,
# human leukocyte antigen (HLA) expression,
# co-stimulatory molecule expression in macrophages.
We demonstrated that CWSP induced IL-1beta secretion
in macrophages via
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated
protein kinase signaling pathways.
Furthermore, we demonstrated that
preinjection of C57BL/6J mice with CWSP
increased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced
tumor necrosis factor-alpha
and IL-1beta secretion into serum in vivo.
This outcome was consistent with the
corresponding outcome for cells treated with CWSP in vitro.

Safety and immunoenhancing effect of a
Chlorella-derived dietary supplement
in healthy adults undergoing influenza vaccination:
randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
CMAJ. 2003 Jul 22;169(2):111-7.
Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University
and the IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS. [Canada]
Recipients of 400 mg Chlorella-derived dietary supplement
did not have any effect in increasing the
antibody response to influenza vaccine
in the overall study population,
although there was an increase in antibody response
among participants aged 50-55 years.

Chlorella methanol extract reduces lipid accumulation
in and increases the number of apoptotic 3T3-L1 cells.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Aug;1171:183-9.
Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of
East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Korea.
. Chlorella has many ways of promoting health,
including detoxification, boosting the immune system,
and even reversing cancer [promoting apoptosis]
In this study, we found that
methanol extract of Chlorella
reduces lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
It has been postulated that these antiobesity effects
could be a result of reducing adipogenesis.
First,
the MTT assay indicated that Chlorella
significantly inhibited cell growth of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.
The accumulation of triacylglycerol in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
decreased in cells treated with Chlorella versus
those in untreated cells by Oil Red O staining.
. Chlorella also showed a significant dose-dependent
increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity
in culture medium of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Second,
we investigated the effects of Chlorella
on the induction of apoptosis
by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis.
Chlorella showed that apoptotic cells increased
in a time- and dose-dependent manner
in cell apoptosis analysis by propidium iodide (PI) staining.
Treatment with Chlorella
decreased the number of normal cells
and increased the number of apoptotic cells
in a dose-dependent manner in
annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/PI double staining.
Therefore, Chlorella is expected to efficiently reduce
adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
and to induce apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

Beneficial effects of Chlorella-11 peptide
on blocking LPS-induced macrophage activation
and alleviating thermal injury-induced inflammation in rats.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2010 Jul-Sep;23(3):811-20.
Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry,
National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan.
. Chlorella possesses various remarkable biological activities.
One component, Val-Glu-Cys-Tyr-Gly-Pro-Asn-Arg-Pro-Gln-Phe
(Chlorella-11 peptide) was found to be able to
suppress LPS-induced NO production and inflammation.
However, the molecular mechanism behind these findings
and the consistency between in vitro and in vivo data
have not been investigated.
LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages were used to study
in vitro molecular anti-inflammatory effects
of Chlorella-11 peptide.
After activation, NO production and the expression of
iNOS and NF-kappaB proteins
as well as iNOS mRNA were measured
Alterations in PGE2 and TNF-alpha contents
were also monitored by ELISA. For in vivo studies,
thermal injury Wistar rats were used
and inflammatory indications e.g. serum malondialdehyde (MDA),
TNF-alpha levels and skin erythema
were evaluated 48 h after injury implementation.
In vitro results showed that Chlorella-11 peptide
produced a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of
NO production.
The effective inhibition could remain for at least 6 h
after LPS activation.
It was also found that the expression of
LPS-induced iNOS mRNA, iNOS and NF-kappaB proteins
were diminished by the peptide treatment.
Concurrently, the levels on TNF-alpha and PGE2 production
after LPS activation
were also inhibited.
These findings are in agreement with the in vivo data
that animal serum MDA and TNF-alpha levels and skin erythema
in rats were considerably reduced
compared to the control group (saline-treated).
The significance of this study sheds light on
the effectiveness of Chlorella-11 peptide
in preventing inflammation progression in vitro and in vivo
and its potential for clinical applications.

Influence of Chlorella powder intake
during swimming stress in mice.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Jan 7;404(1):121-6.
Sun Chlorella Corp., Research and Development Department,
Karasuma-dori, Gojo, Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto 600-8177, Japan.
. in mice on chlorella 14 days,
swimming time was about 2-fold longer .
. the global gene expression profile of muscle
from the Chlorella intake mice
was similar to that of muscle from non-swimming mice,
while controls differed .
Gene ontology and pathway analyses
of gene expression data showed that
oxidoreductase activity
and the leukotriene synthesis pathway
were repressed in the Chlorella intake mice
following the swimming test.
In addition, blood levels of
free fatty acids, glucose, triglycerides,
and lactic acid in the of Chlorella intake mice
were higher [more normal] than
that of [the exhausted] control mice.

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