purges throughout the ages

. I had so much fun in wiki the past month
learning about the supercycles of history .
. it started with the wondering about the
people around the Great Wall of china .
. this lead me to Stalin,
and the wide world of
purgings throughout the ages!
. there I found I had so much to learn
about the pervasiveness of slavery,
the persecution of Jews and communalism .
. I've just started making a summary timeline
of these topics, and I include some here,
but the final project can be found at a knol:
purges throughout the ages:
supercycles of free parenting, free enterprise, and privacy rights .
. the world has been, and continues to be
an agonizing replay of unchecked growth,
invasions, enslavements, and mass murders;
empire after empire:
war, slavery, and property rights
have been our only birth control .

. here is a list of todo's
showing the wiki links I plan to synthesize
into my timeline:

major events of all times
times of phi
times of slavery
witches and mentally ill getting purged,

. starting from 1861–1865 American Civil War
times of islam
times iran
times roman empire

links to various ??

here are some comments I had along the way:

mongolia affected by stalin purge?
. the purge affected a number of national minorities,
accused of being "fifth column" communities.
[intent on undermining the government from within]

jews have similar situation:
. while the mongols were physically between
2 dictators: china and russia,
the jews were historically often between
the last and next religious dictators;
with the russians they find
that the people with no religion
can be dictatorial about maintaining
the null religion,
or demanding a national socialism
that precludes the use of any
separatist behaviors .

9.19: co.apt/pol/purges/turkey won't admit genocide on armenia:
. history is full of war,
and war is full of hate,
why tag Turkey's hate with the "(genocide) label?
just because they also nailed
Armenians in their own country?
didn't we nail Japanese in our country?
are they pinning a genocide-like term on usa?
[actually they are calling us a scathing racist,
and all a genocide is
is a racist that practices murder too .
. that's an esp'ly interesting worry for Turkey
since they are the remnants of the
Islamic ottoman empire, shoveled by WWI;
and the war on Terror has grassroots saying
we need a mass neutralization of islam
pointing to the Qu'ran as proof
that all by-the-book islam is militant;
like if they did admit an old crime,
mobs would flash-bomb "(look what Islam did!).]

9.21: co.apt/pol/purges/south gambled on cotton:
. the south thought cotton king,
but unexpectedly
the southerners got no help from europe;
either because
europe had other sources of cotton;
or the euro'aristocracy was in a
social bind:
concerning labor'rights
they had to be at least against slavery;
esp'ly when the euro'mobs
were in the middle of demanding
not only choice in masters,
but also choice in pay and conditions .
. the usa'anti-slavers might owe a deep bow to
the socialists and communists .

9.21: pol/purges/usa's mexican war setup by prev'war:
. notice after natives take many losses
when employed by the mexicans;
then the mexican gov' is so terrified of natives
they're inviting anglo'settlers to help with
local militia establishment .
. maybe natives weren't so hostile toward non-mexicans?

9.21: pol/purges/why was stalin so bureaucratic?:
. why was stalin so bureaucratic?
communizing did make everyone owners;
but, owners can still find things to argue about;
esp'ly if building a trans-culture empire
-- that is what
might need a very harsh leadership .
[9.29: and don't forget
they slapped their way to power;
so the whole place is slap-happy,
and surely many long for the old ways .]

9.21: pol/purges/slavery was the old religious nut:
. the civil war's main players were all owners;
and, the slavery issue was so divisive;
the fed's at that point
had to get either much stronger
or much weaker .

9.21: co.apt/pol/purges/supercycle sleeping bag -- I get it!:
. zztop's song about supercycle sleeping bag
seems so obvious now that I've been reading about
our centuries of empire replacing empire !
. we see only generations and life changes;
asleep to the supercycles or eras of history .
. there's some lyric sites that
don't include the term "(supercycle);
but I checked a copy of the song,
and it does sound like that;
plus, it makes sense:
supercycle is a common term in laundromats
for running the unit longer than usual;
and it was about the egyptions having a
"(put me to bed for a long time) bag or habit .

9.22: co.apt/pol/purges/supercycle slave burner:
. a usa that was pretending to be christian
(escaping from euro'religious tyranny)
was eaten alive by pretending to be
smart capitalists (christians are slavers?!);
and the tables turned, big time
(the civil war outlawed slavery nationally);
uh, but for how long?
now they have the war on terror,
-- meat-grinder just the young --
(slave treatments) for a long time!
maybe youth're interested in a robot engineer?
ahhhh .

9.23: pol/purges/supercycle snooze button:
. communism and nazism's core idealogy
was just too cool;
that's why they were hijacked
by the murderous jackels;
way too cool for the aristocracy around there .
. nazi's basis was love the one you're with,
and be with the one's you love;
usa could institute that
with communism:
letting the federation own all the land,
so they could parsel it out to culures
rather than to land-grabbing capitalists .

9.23: pol/purges/partitioned by tolerance not sexuality:
. the problem with the nazi dream
is bisexuals:
those that want to raise children,
many of whom will be solidly
heterosexual (unlike their parents).
. that means you can't just
tell them to start their own city;
they are taking the kids with them;
and, it seems the greater good would be
training people to be more tolerant?
no, the nazi dream still applies:
you tell intolerance
to separate from tolerance .
. you also separate
-- physically and economically --
from people who use risky behaviors
-- like promiscuity --
to raise their health bills .

9.24: co.apt/pol/purges/empires to battles to rounds -- non-stop!:
. one change the repub's have made
was that it used to be a culture war,
and they made it into a cap'ing profit game .
but by the
dem-repub-zionist machine that won't quit,
it will soon be back to culture:
islam vs the world .
earlier today I realized,
it was the empires of WW{1 2 3}:
wwI took the ottomanic islam down,
wwII put the judaism
into the heart of crippled islam,
and wwIII will wait for some
strategic inflection point
to drive judaism out of zionism,
or drive islam into really high powers
that make zionism irrelevant
-- a different style of 911 .
that could easily be the biological warfare:
even if it wipes out most their selves,
it leaves the world with a game
they know best .
. nice thing with doves vs hawks,
with the bomb and cold war,
it's a nice time to build up tech:
the compressing of power;
there will be a one-world peace
(with universal survaillence
and real power to intervene
not the 1984 big brother terror trip:
"(when we catch you ..)
no we alway catch you,
and you never victimize anyone
you can do anything you want
because we don't let you dilute the wealth
with overpopulations .)

9.25: co.apt/pol/purges/the good jewish communism:
jewish trotsky said
good jews can be internationalists;
he had the same spirit the labor class had
when they fought for communism;
that communism got a bad name
when it was hijacked by stalin's
anti-internationist bureacratic enslavement .
. the other communistic jews were saying
zionism was escapism:
ie, "(we are good people;
we should be in the world
competing with it . )
. repub's for zionism,
they -- or you that are using them --
will see islam with nukes or bioweapons
hope you're loving it .
. I was under the impression
muslims only wanted us to stop funding zionism
which is a naked land grab by non-islamics;
but in the empire theory,
they may want to restart
what they lost in wwI .]

9.12 ... 9.20: highlights of history:

-1700 Nordic Bronze Age 
The Germanic tribes then inhabited
southern Scandinavia, Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg .
. denmark is the epicenter of Pre-Roman Iron Age
. grant's pre-teutonic nordics (-1800)
and {teutonic nordics,  slavic alpines}(-100) .

-800  colonizations

-728 Median Empire or Median Confederation
They entered this region with the first wave of Iranian tribes,
in the late second millennium BC (the Bronze Age collapse).
By the 6th century BC,
after having together with the Babylonians
defeated the Neo-Assyrian Empire,
the Medes were able to establish their authority,
lasting for about sixty years,
from the sack of Nineveh in 612 BC
until 549 BC when Cyrus the Great 

-550 Persian Empire's Cyrus the Great
. Cyrus the Great established the
Achaemenid Empire by defeating Astyages, king of Media.
he spanned three continents:
Asia, Africa and Europe
(Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and the territories of northern India,
parts of Central Asia, Asia Minor, Thrace and Macedonia,
much of the Black Sea coastal regions, Iraq,
northern Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Syria,
and all significant population centers of
ancient Egypt as far west as Libya.

-538 Jews freed from greek's Babylon

. Babylonian exile was the period in Jewish history
during which the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah
were captives in Babylon.
-- Avignon Papacy of Medieval Catholic history,
had parallels to this .
. deportations of Jews to Babylon:
-597 king Jeconiah and his court;
-587 Zedekiah, the next king;
-582 ?? following the assassination of Babylonian governor .
The exile ended -538 with the fall of
greek's Babylon to the
Persian king Cyrus the Great,
who gave the Jews permission to
return to Yehud province (Jerusalem)
and rebuild the Second Temple.
. during the Greco-Persian Wars,
the Persian Empire's Cyrus the Great 
emancipated slaves including the Jews
from their Babylonian captivity;
Persian were also reknown for instituting
the usage of official languages
and gov's working to the profit of all.

-508 Athenian democracy
. Aristotle (Politics 1.2-7; 3.14) states that
barbarians[non-greeks] are slaves by nature.
. slavery existed on a scale
never before seen among the Greeks.
Massive concentrations of slaves were worked
under especially brutal conditions
in the silver mines at Laureion
Furthermore, slaves were no longer the preserve of the rich:
all but the poorest of Athenian households
came to have slaves to supplement the work of their free members.

-499 Greco-Persian Wars
. the enormous Achaemenid Empire of Persia
vs city-states of the Hellenic world
lasted 50years
. Cyrus the Great was struggling to
rule the independent-minded cities of Ionia,
and appointed tyrants to rule each of them.
This would prove the source of much trouble
for both Greeks and Persians alike.
Aristagoras, the tyrant of Miletus, 
embarked on a Persian-supported
conquering expedition that he botched;
and, pre-empting his dismissal,
he incited progressively more
until the whole of Hellenic Asia Minor
was rebellion against the Persians.
. the greek states of Athens and Eretria,
destroyed a Persian regional capital .
Seeking to secure his empire from further revolts,
and from the interference of the mainland Greeks,
they embarked on a scheme to conquer Greece .
-480: 2nd Persian invasion of Greece failed .

-336 Greek conquest of the Persian Empire
. tutored by Aristotle, and inheriting
both a strongly-armed kingdom
and his father's plans for expansion,
Alexander the Great invaded the
Persian-ruled Asia Minor,
marched through Syria, Egypt,
Mesopotamia, Persia, and Bactria;
and conquered the Persian Empire.
. he tried invading India,
but lost troop cooperation .
Alexander was spreading Greek culture
into the East:
( Afghanistan Bulgaria Cyprus Egypt
 France Iran Iraq Israel
 Italy Jordan Kuwait
 Lebanon Libya Macedonia
 Pakistan Syria Tajikistan
 Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan
and starting up Hellenistic civilization:
In the years following Alexander's death,
a series of civil wars tore his empire apart .
Alexander the Great conquers Phoenicia and Gaza,
probably passing by Judea
without entering the Jewish dominated hill country
on his way into Egypt.

-323 Hellenistic civilization

. the zenith of Greek influence;
Héllēn is the traditional name for Greeks .
. a new wave of Greek colonization
came from different parts of the Greek world,
and not, as before, from a specific "mother city".
. the culture was a fusion of Ancient Greek,
and many previously regarded as "barbarian" .

The main cultural centers
expanded from mainland Greece
to Pergamon, Rhodes, and new Greek colonies
such as Seleucia, Antioch and Alexandria.
This mixture of Greek-speakers
gave birth to a common Attic-based dialect,
known as Hellenistic Greek,
which became the lingua franca
through the Hellenistic world.

Hellenistic kingdoms were established throughout
south-west Asia (the 'Near' and 'Middle East')
and north-east Africa (mainly ancient Egypt).
This resulted in the export of
Greek culture and language

-146 Hellenistic Empire is fading
. greek areas are controled by
the Roman Republic 
. much of Greek culture, art and literature
permeated Roman society,
whose elite spoke and read
Greek as well as Latin .

. the Roman Empire was the 
post-Republican phase
of the ancient Roman civilization,
characterised by an autocracy
and large territorial holdings in Europe
and around the Mediterranean.[5]
The term is used to describe the Roman state
during and after the time of
the first emperor, Augustus.
The 500-year-old Roman Republic, which preceded it,
had been weakened and subverted through several civil wars.[nb 2]

-167 Jews revolt against Hellenistic Empire
The Maccabees (Hasmoneans) revolt against
the Hellenistic Empire of Seleucids, led by Judah Maccabee,
resulting in victorious installation of
the Hanukkah holiday.

-157 Jews war with Seleucid Empire
. Hasmonean dynasty establishes
royal dominance in Judea
during renewed war with Seleucid Empire.

-105 The terror cimbricus
. a panic and state of emergency in Rome
in response to the approach of
warriors of the Cimbri tribe .

-101 Northern danger for the Roman Republic
Caesar's wars helped establish the term Germania.
The initial purpose of the Roman campaigns
was to protect Transalpine Gaul
by controlling the area between the Rhine
and the Elbe.

-63 Judea subsumed by Roman Empire
The Romans intervene in the civil war in Judea,
which becomes a Roman province (see Iudaea Province).
Rome's involvement in the area dated from 63 BCE,
following the end of the Third Mithridatic War,
when Rome made Syria a province.
Subsequently, the Herodian Kingdom was
established as a client kingdom
and then parts became a province
of the Roman Empire.[1]
Iudaea Province was the stage of three major rebellions
(see Jewish-Roman wars),
after which Hadrian changed the
name of the province to Syria Palaestina
and Jerusalem to Aelia Capitolina
in an attempt to erase the historical ties
of the Jewish people to the region.

-44 Roman Empire's perpetual dictator
. Julius Caesar's appointment as perpetual dictator 
marks the transition from Republic to Empire,
Roman expansion began in the days of the Republic,
but reached its zenith under Emperor Trajan.
At this territorial peak,
the Roman Empire controlled 6.5 million km
Because of the Empire's vast extent and long endurance,
Roman influence upon the language, religion, architecture,
philosophy, law, and government of nations
around the world lasts to this day.

#000 bc turns to ad 

66 Jewish-Roman wars# Great Jewish Revolt

115 Jewish-Roman wars# the Kitos War

117 Roman Empire' & germanic' expansions collide
As the Roman Empire expanded to the
Rhine and Danube rivers,
it incorporated many Celtic societies .
The tribal homelands to the north and east
emerged collectively as "(Germania).
( "(Germanic tribes) were the
North Western Europe ancestors of
Germans, Danish, Dutch, Swedish, English, 
Flemish, Norwegians and Icelanders ...)
(vs latin and slavic regions of europe .)
[. Importantly for future fascist-driven wars,
this does not include the French or Russians .]
The peoples of this area
were sometimes at war with Rome,
but also engaged in complex and long-term
trade relations, military alliances,
and cultural exchanges as well.
132 Jewish-Roman wars# Bar Kokhba's revolt
Casualties and losses were Very heavy;
enslavement of some and diaspora.
. the third major rebellion by the
Jews of Judaea Province
and the last of the Jewish-Roman Wars.
Simon bar Kokhba, the commander,
was acclaimed as a Messiah,
a heroic figure who could restore Israel.
The revolt established an independent state of Israel
over parts of Judea for over two years,
but a Roman army of 12 legions with auxiliaries
finally crushed it.

136 Jews purged from Jerusalem
. after final Jewish-Roman War
The Romans then barred Jews from Jerusalem,
except to attend Tisha B'Av.
. even Jewish Christians
-- who hailed Jesus as the Messiah
and did not support Bar Kokhba --
were barred from Jerusalem .
The war and its aftermath
helped differentiate Christianity
as a religion distinct from Judaism .

235 Roman Empire's Military Anarchy
. the Roman Empire nearly collapsed
under the combined pressures of invasion,
civil war, plague, and economic depression.
The Crisis began after the Emperor Severus
doubling as a general, was fragged .
Severus had resorted to diplomacy
and paying tribute in an attempt to
pacify the Germanic chieftains .
. the power crisis was resolved by
dividing authority between four co-emperors,
. this would recur, often along an East/West axis.

258 Roman Empire split into three
# Gallic Empire
Roman provinces of Gaul, Britannia and Hispania;
# Palmyrene Empire,
eastern provinces of Syria Palaestina and Aegyptus;
# Roman Empire

300 Germania & Roman Empire Christianized

. the Empire as a whole
 began shifting towards a more openly autocratic
 and ritualized form of government;
and, adopted Christianity
 as the state religion, 
(vs the traditions and values
 of Classical Antiquity). 

. the Roman Empire's "Byzantine Empire" branch
is named after the eastern city of Byzantium, 
later renamed Constantinople, 
 the largest and most powerful city 
of Early Middle Ages Christian Europe .

. all Germanic peoples were eventually
Christianized to varying extents.
Europe's Germanic peoples,
( Franks, Saxons, Vandals, Angles,
Lombards, Burgundians and Goths )
transformed the Roman Empire
into Medieval Europe.
. some refered to this as
barbians invading roman empire:
. ostrogoths, huns, visigoths,
and later the vandals .
. Germanic languages are principally
English, German, Dutch and Scandinavian.

406 Germania invades Roman Empire:
. managed crossing the Rhine 
after the Romans retreated
to defend against an different attack .

410 the Sack of Rome:
. the first time in almost 800 years
that the city of Rome 
had fallen to a foreign enemy .

476 Western Roman Empire collapsed
 . as Romulus Augustus was dethroned by
 Odoacer, a Germanic chieftain.

480 East Roman Emperor is assassinated 
565 death of Justinian I:
. the last Roman Emperor who
 tried to reconquer the West .

500 the dark ages (...1000)

632 Islam's Muhammad dies 
-- another Nail in the Roman Empire --

633, Islam's Rashidun Caliphate Empire:
. after the Wars of Ridda (Apostasy)
following Muhammad's death,
Arabia was united under the central authority
of the Rashidun (the Rightly Guided) Caliphate .
Once the rebellions had been put down,
Abu Bakr began a war of conquest
leading to one of the largest empires in history.
At its height, the Caliphate extended from
the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant,
Caucasus and North Africa in the west,
to the Iranian highlands
and Central Asia in the east.
 Umar did not convert non-Muslims
nor did he try to centralize government,
as the Persians had done;
The only intrusion would be a governor (amir)
and a financial officer called an amil;
he built an efficient system of taxation
and brought the military directly under
the financial control of the state.

643 Caliphate conquers Persian Empire

644 Caliphate Umar assassinated:
. Umar was mortally wounded
by one of his Persian slaves .

656 Caliphate Uthman assassinated:

. after Uthman ibn Affan was murdered by a group of rebels
citizens flocked to Ali ibn Abu Talib,
Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law,
and a respected community leader
who had been passed over for the leadership
three times since the death of Muhammad.
They then urged him to take the caliphate.

suspected seditionists, 4000 purged:
. Ali then had to fight against
numerous challengers to his rule.
# eminent companions of Mohammad: Zubayr, Talha;
were killed in the battle
after they withdrew from the battlefield
refusing to fight against Muslims.
The cry of revenge for Caliph Uthman grew,
. the army of the new Caliph met at Basra, 
and 4000 suspected seditionists were put down .

Ali stalemated Uthman's kinsman Mu'awiya,
the governor of Syria, at the Battle of Siffin
and then lost a controversial arbitration;
and he fought his own mutinous soldiers
(the first Kharijites).
Large sections of the new empire
created in the twenty-four years (632-656)
were lost due to the civil war,
-- Sicily, North Africa, coasts of Spain
and some forts in Anatolia .

661 Caliphate Ali assassinated:
. assassinated in the Mosque by a relative of
one of the rebel soldiers he had defeated .
His son Hasan ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad,
briefly assumed the caliphate upon being appointed by Ali,
but realized that he could not prevail.

661 Islam's Umayyad Caliphate Empire
. lead by Umayya ibn Abd Shams,
the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph . 
. Hasan ibn Ali, grandson of Muhammad,
and son of the recently assassinated Caliphate
{agreed, was aware, was told}
that Mu'awiya, governor of Syria,
would assume control of the empire .
. the Umayyad family (aka Banu Abd-Shams)
share ancestry with Muhammad:
Abd Manaf ibn Qusai,
Muhammad descended from Abd Manāf
via his son Hashim,
while the Umayyads descended from Abd Manaf
via a different son, Abd-Shams,
whose son was Umayya.
The two families are therefore considered to be
different clans (those of Hashim
and of Umayya, respectively)
of the same tribe (that of the Quraish).
However Shia historians point out that Umayya
was an adopted son of Abd Shams
so he was not a blood relative of Abd Manaf ibn Qusai.
Umayya was later discarded from the noble family.

The Abbasid caliphs
in conjunction with Sassanid Persians
reigned over the Middle Eastern portion
 of the Islamic world
 where science and literature flourished.
The North African and Spanish portions
were mired in wars and conflicts
until expulsion of all Moslems from Spain in 1614.
North Africa remained a haven for marauding corsairs
 as well as a tax haven for the Ottoman Empire.
Caliphate, as an institution,
ended in the Middle East when
Seljuk Turks captured Baghdad.

751, Ottoman Empire becomes Islamic:
. they brought Islam with them to Anatolia
beginning in the 11th century.
. their flag is the islamic star & moon on red .

800 Germany's Holy Roman Empire
. the Holy Roman Emperor
(or "Roman-German Kaiser")
was a medieval German King
who also had the title of
"Emperor of the Romans"
given by the Pope
(Holy Roman Catholic Church);
and, after the 16th century,
he was the elected monarch of the 
Holy Roman Empire of the German nation,
a union of territories in Central European
--. ended 1806 .
For centuries, the Holy Roman Emperors
(mostly from the Habsburg family)
had nominally ruled all of
"Germany" — the Holy Roman Empire.
In fact, however,
the territory of Central Europe
was split into a few large states
and hundreds of tiny entities
(principalities, bishoprics and free cities
and even free villages,
baronies, lordships and knighthoods),
each jealously maintaining its de facto
sovereignty and independence
(... with the assistance France).
Austria -- the home of the Habsburg Emperors --
was traditionally considered
the leader of the German states .

998 Islam's era of the Sultanate
. after the Caliphate, as an institution,
ended in the Middle East
a new institution was created;
namely the Sultanate.
Henceforth, Muslim rulers;
be they Arab, Turkic, Chingizid, or Persian
 were all known as Sultans .

1096 First Crusade
. Western Christianity attempts to regain the Holy Lands
taken in the Muslim conquest of the Levant,
ultimately resulting in the recapture of Jerusalem.
It was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II
with the primary goal of responding to an appeal from
Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos,
who requested help to repel the invading
Seljuk Turks from Anatolia.
An additional goal soon became the principal objective
—the Christian reconquest of the
sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land
and the freeing of the Eastern Christians
from Islamic rule.

1299 Ottoman Empire -- rise of Islam
. the Sublime Ottoman State lasted to 1923.
At the height of its power,
the empire spanned three continents,
controlling much of Southeastern Europe,
Western Asia and North Africa.
. The empire would for six centuries
bethe center of interactionsbetween
 the Eastern and Western worlds,
with vast control of the eastern Mediterranean;
the Ottoman Empire was, in many respects,
an Islamic successor to the
Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.

1453 Eastern (Byzantine) Roman Empire ended
. the death of Constantine XI
and the capture of Constantinople
by the Ottoman Turks led by Mehmed II .
. the Eastern Roman Empire of the Middle Ages,
was Greek-speaking and considered itself
the Roman Empire and also Romania .

1543 Scientific revolution
. revolutionary publications:
Copernicus`On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
Vesalius`On the Fabric of the Human body

1618 Thirty Years' War (Austria vs France)
-- 1 million attempted late-term abortions

. one of the most destructive conflicts
in European history.
. Naval warfare also reached overseas
and shaped the colonial formation
of future nations .
. Initially the war was largely a
politico-religious conflict
between Protestants and Catholics
in the Holy Roman Empire,
Gradually, the war developed into a
continuation of the Bourbon-Habsburg rivalry
and in turn led to further warfare between
France and the Habsburg powers .
A major impact of the Thirty Years' War
was the extensive destruction of entire regions,
denuded by the foraging armies (bellum se ipsum alet).
Episodes of famine and disease
significantly decreased the populace of
the German states, Bohemia,
the Low Countries and Italy,
while bankrupting most of the combatant powers.

1634 Battle of Nördlingen
. The Catholic Imperial army, bolstered by
professional Spanish troops
won a great victory in the battle over
the combined Protestant armies of Sweden
and their German allies .

1648 Peace of Westphalia 

. ended the Thirty Years' War in Germany.
. Austria ceded to France
all Habsburg lands and claims in Alsace
and acknowledged de facto French sovereignty
over the Three Bishoprics.
Moreover, eager to emancipate themselves
from Habsburg domination,
petty German states defected to France,
by forming the League of the Rhine's
Rhenish Alliance .
1658 League of the Rhine's Rhenish Alliance:

. the further diminution of Imperial power.
[Holy Roman Emperor (or "Roman-German Kaiser")]
The League of the Rhine
(also known as the Erste Rheinbund,
First Rhine-Bund;
or the Rheinische Allianz - Rhenish Alliance)
was a defensive union of more than
50 German princes' cities along the River Rhine,
to marginalise the
Austrian house of Habsburg .
. Louis XIV of France was protecting
France's eastern frontier along the Rhine
and cutting Austria off from the
Spanish Netherlands.
. the 1648 treaty of Westphalia had
made the League possible
by authorising the German princes,
immediate vassals of the Emperor,
to conclude alliances between themselves
or with foreign states.

1662 Great Turkish War
. a disaster for the Ottomans, 
from which they were unable to recover.

#1700 century

. a conflict between “Court” and “Country”; 
ie, the court was the increasingly powerful 
centralising, bureaucratic, sovereign princely states;
the country was the traditional, 
regional, land-based aristocracy and gentry
. or, the intellectual and religious changes
 introduced by the Reformation  and the Renaissance .

1701 Spanish Succession War

. a world-wide war started by a 
spanish-french alliance that could 
destabilize world military balance .
. French ambitions were defeated
and "(balance of power) was preserved.
Philip, the legitimate heir of Charles II of Spain 
is recognized as King of Spain 
but renounces any claim to the throne of France.
Spanish`seg# Philip V .
 Spanish`seg# Archduke Charles, 
the Holy Roman Empire, [germany]
Great Britain, the Dutch Republic, [nordics]
Portugal [next to spain]
the Duchy of Savoy [n.italy]

1702 Queen Anne's War
-- part of the Spanish Succession War
but in North America  --
France, spain, natives:
( Mi'kmaq  Abenaki  Caughnawaga Mohawk  Choctaw
 Timucua  Apalachee  Natchez)
England[Brit], natives:
( Iroquois Confederacy,  Muscogee (Creek)
 Chickasaw,  Yamasee).
--. the brits and spanish-sided natives
took by far most of the late-term abortions .
. France cedes some land to Britain:
 Acadia, Newfoundland, Hudson Bay and Saint Kitts .

1700's america's lesser wars
1777–1794 Chickamauga wars
1785–1795 Northwest Indian War
1786–1787 Shays' Rebellion
1791–1794 Whiskey Rebellion
1798–1800 Quasi-War, an undeclared naval war with France

1775 American Revolutionary War

. all British usa colonies had slavery, 
but the Revolutionary War  gave impetus to
 a general anti-slavery sentiment .
. Actual end of slavery for norther states (state: year):
1777 c.1845 1783 c.1845? 1848 1842 1827 1865

1787 usa`Northwest Ordinance:
The first U.S. region entirely free of slavery
 was the Midwest, which was ordained free
 under the this Ordinance,
passed just before
 the Constitution was ratified. 
The states created from this region
— Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota —
were generally settled by New Englanders
 and Revolutionary War veterans grants .
Because this region was entirely 
free from its inception
and separated from the South by the Ohio River 
the concept developed of "free states" 
in contrast to "slave states." 
The rural Midwest, formerly competing with
 the Northeastern commercial states, 
had realigned with the 
newly them as free states .

1793 Reign of Terror -- france's great purge
-- {16,000 ... 40,000} late-term abortions --

. the French Revolutionary Wars
of the First French Republic
meant a civil war while struggling to
win wars with neighbors
resulting in political panic .

Maximilien Robespierre,`
Committee of Public Safety,
was created to suppress internal
counter-revolutionary activities
and raise additional
French military force.

. The Jacobins cited the precedent of
year -105's The terror cimbricus
when imposing a Reign of Terror
during the French Revolution .

. the Revolutionary Tribunal,
exercised broad dictatorial powers
for massive political purges.
1794 revolutionary France was
beset with
real or imagined conspiracies
by internal and foreign enemies.

. the French nobility, had lost
inherited privileges;
The Roman Catholic Church
were turned into employees of the state,
required to take an oath of
loyalty to the nation .
. there's intense party rivalry between
Girondins and the radical
Paris-supporting Jacobins .

1794 "la Grande Terreur" (The Great Terror),
uses the guillotine ("National Razor")
against "enemies of the revolution" .
. this is height of the terrorism war strategy
and is finalized by the "Thermidorian Reaction",
when the leadership was executed .


1800: universal histories proliferated

Philosophers such as Kant, Schiller and Hegel,
and political philosophers such as Marx,
presented general theories of history;
Hegel presented progress in history
as a developmental theory of
how the human spirit progresses:
through the dialectic of synthesis and antithesis.

Marx's theory of dialectic materialism
is essential to his general concept of history:
that the struggle to
dominate the means of production
governs all historical development.

Hegel was a cocreator of German Idealism.
His historicist and idealist account of reality 
revolutionized European philosophy
and was an important precursor to
Continental philosophy and Marxism.

Hegel`Elements of the Philosophy of Right
made the distinction between
civil society and state .
. civil society was a stage on the
dialectical relationship between Hegel's
perceived opposites:
# the macro-community of the state
# the micro-community of the family .
the term"(civil society ) was split:
# On the left,
the foundation for Karl Marx's
civil society as an economic base;
# on the right:
it became a description for all
non-state aspects of society,
including culture, society and politics.

. Karl Marx`historical materialism:
. . Georgi Plekhanov, the father of Russian Marxism,
later introduced the term dialectical materialism
Stalin`doctrine of Marxism-Leninism
code-named "(DIAlectical MATerialism) as Diamat .

. Dialectical materialism is essentially
the thesis that history is
the product of class struggles
and follows the general Hegelian principle of
philosophy of history:
the thesis developes into its antithesis
which is sublated by the synthesis .
thesis antithesis synthesis .
-- sublation shows
# in Hegel: the movement of (Geist
or also Zeitgeist — the "Spirit of the Time").
# in Marx: development of material conditions.
Hegel's dialectics aims to explain
the development of human history.
Marx's dialectical materialism
considers history as a product of
material class struggle in society.

Ancient Greece` dialectic:
# Dialectic:
. reveals truth by using 2 characters
with differing views in a dialogue
trying to come to concensus .
--. dialectic reason was made popular by
Plato in his Socratic dialogues;
also used by Hindu, Buddhist, Medieval,
Hegelian, Marxist, and Talmudic literature .
# debate:
differing views trying to disprove the other .
# rhetoric:
. Sophistry . tricks for persuasion .
. depends on a captive audience,
weak critical thinking,
or low emotional intelligence .

The more recent movement of communitarianism
has a strong Hegelian influence.

1806 Napoleon disbands Holy Roman (German) Empire:
. The German states, as the Rheinbund
(Confederation of the Rhine)
would submit to French influence
until the defeat of Napoleon .

1812 War of 1812 (usa vs British)
-- more showmanship than abortions --

. Americans declared war in 1812 for
trade restrictions, 
impressment of American merchant sailors
 into the Royal Navy, 
[for the raging euro wars]
and, British support of American Indian tribes
 against American expansion .
. usa employed a few natives
(Choctaw Cherokee Creek allies)
while the {brit, UK, canada}'s 
got a lot of help:
(Shawnee, Creek Red Sticks, Ojibway
Chickamauga, Fox, Iroquois, Miami,
Mingo,Ottawa,Kickapoo,Delaware (Lenape),Mascouten
,Potawatomi,Sauk,Wyandot) .
. also during the War of 1812, 
the British promised emancipation to
slaves that would support their side. 
By the end of the War of 1812, 
the momentum for antislavery reform, 
state by state, appeared to run out of steam, 
with half free: 
#Northeast: already abolished it;
#Midwest: prohibited it from the start;
#others: committed to eliminating it
and half slavers:
(maryland to texas and Southward) .
Following 1812, and until the Civil War, 
maintaining the balance of free and slave states 
within the federal legislature 
was considered of paramount importance 
if the Union were to be preserved, 
and states were typically admitted in pairs .
. Americans won control of Lake Erie in 1813, 
seized parts of western Ontario, 
and destroyed the power of Britain's Indian allies 
both in Canada and in the Southwest. 
. With the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, 
the British adopted a more aggressive strategy, 
sending in large combat armies. 
. battles such the Battle of New Orleans
 and the earlier successful defense of Baltimore 
(which inspired the lyrics of the U.S. national anthem, 
The Star-Spangled Banner)
 produced a sense of euphoria about
"a second war of independence from Britain" .

1814 Napoleonic France's defeat
. the beginning of peace talks
(Congress of Vienna);
Napoleon's final defeat was not until
June 18, 1815 (Waterloo) .

1815 Congress of Vienna
. The Congress of Vienna was a model for
the League of Nations
and United Nations;
it created spheres of influence through which
France, Austria, Russia and Britain
brokered local and regional problems
-- it was called a congress because
leaders met in person
rather than using messengers .
. it was a set of Great Powers peace talks:
mostly France, UK, Austria, and Russia,
and sometimes Prussia,
. the settlement, despite later changes,
formed Europe's framework for politics
until 1914's WWI .
. it settled the many issues arising from 
the French Revolutionary Wars,
the Napoleonic Wars,
and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
. it redrew the political map,
establishing the boundaries of France,
Napoleon's duchy of Warsaw,
the Netherlands,
the states of the Rhine,
the German province of Saxony,
and various Italian territories .

1815 Napoleonic Wars ended:
. the Germanic states are once again
reorganized into a loose confederation:
the German Confederation,
under Austrian leadership.
German nationalism became a potent force .

1820 slaver's Missouri Compromise
. slavery was prohibited 
north of the parallel 36°30' north
(above az, new mexico, oklahoma, tennessee)
Jefferson feared:
"( a geographical line, coinciding with a 
marked principle, moral and political, 
once conceived and held up to
the angry passions of men, 
will never be obliterated; 
and every new irritation 
will mark it deeper and deeper)

 . that was a funny thing to hear 
after living through 
lines drawn just like that 
for burning-in the wars of
korea, vietnam, israel, abortion .
Second Missouri Compromise:
. besides the struggle of balance in the senate
(requiring pairs of slave/anti-slave states)
there was also a call for 
the same thing we do with immigrant workers:
slaves -- mostly from africa -- 
are not to be counted as citizens;
they are just here to work .

1834 usa`slavers vs mexican`fishers
-- thousands of late-term abortions --

. after 1924 war, Mexico was essentially bankrupt,
so to protect the mexicans against
 hostile amer'native tribes, 
it encouraged settlers to form militias,
and to welcome the many new anglos
with liberalized immigration policies .
. suprised at
 how quickly they were outnumbered
 the mexicans reversed their policy:
# immigration was terminated;
#  Tejas settlers could not be slavers
(slaves on Cotton were big money, 
whereas mex'gov demanded corn, grain and beef)
# property tax exemptions for usa settlers
were rescinded .
Settlers ignored the laws:
 7,800 Mexican-born citizens were dwarfed by
30,000 Anglos who were owning
5,000 slaves;
some cotton plantation owners are imprisoned .
. Mexico`de Santa Anna replaced 
an 1824 federal Constitution 
with a more centralized gov',
Battle of the Alamo
Tejas battled to become Republic of Texas, usa .
. a mexican president-general was captured 
but the Mexican government deposed him in absentia .
. texas independence would wait until the 1846 war .

1845 U.S. annexation of Texas

1846 Mexican–American War:
. In addition to a naval blockade off the Mexican coast, 
Americans conquered New Mexico, California, 
and parts of northern Mexico. 
. capture of Mexico City forced Mexico 
to take $15 million for conquered territories .
(not completely unexpected,
since the whole reason for this biblical blunder
 (like Joseph's family being invited to Egypt)
was that Mexico was strapped for cash .

. Territorial expansion to the Pacific coast
was the goal of President James K. Polk, 
the leader of the Democratic Party;
However, the Whig Party and anti-slavers
strongly opposed it .
(remember the texans were invited 
only if they weren't slavers,
and this is much of what they fought about 
like caught thieves) .

1848 euro' socialist Revolutions
. The (February) demonstrations of workers
primarily for freedom of the press, assembly, 
arming of the people,
and a national parliament,
spread from Paris to Germany.

1850, California joins usa as a free state, 
. to be agreeable, it sent one pro-slaver
and one anti-slaver to the senate .

1854 slavers`Gerrymandering vs resettlement:
-- 56 late-term abortions --

Forcing Slavery Down the Throat of a Freesoiler
An 1854 cartoon depicts a giant free soiler 
with head held back by 
James Buchanan and Lewis Cass as they
stand on the Democratic platform marked
 "Kansas", "Cuba" and "Central America". 
[todo: what did cuba mean in 1854?]
Franklin Pierce holds down the giant's beard,
 as Stephen A. Douglas shoves  a black man
 down his throat.

. the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854's
squatter sovereignty doctrine
 stated that democracy decides
 whether a state allows slavers; 
and, this resulted in a stampede 
of immigration to Kansas
by activists from both sides .
. what the slavers contested about 
this form of "(democracy)
was that drawing the boundaries of a state
was anything but democratic:
(and see Gerrymandering)
. from the slaver point of view,
the proper way to shape & size states
is by how the land can be used:
the grand canyons belong to feds,
and the agro lands belong to slavers .
. the eastern portion of Kansas
was just as suitable for slave-based agriculture
as the nearby plantations of Missouri .
. conversely,
slavers had uses for gerrymandering,
because every mile of border with a free state
was increasing the rate of manumission
 (assisted, certain escape of slaves).
. ironically, just 30 years later, 
gas-powered tractors would begin to
decimate the need for agro-slaves .
May 22, 
Senate pistol-whipping by insulted slaver:
. with Rep. Laurence Keitt at pistol,
 (D, South Carolina) `Preston Smith Brooks
was clubbing with a cane
 ( Massachusetts) Charles Sumner
because he had denounced Southerners
(including the clubber's relative)
 for proslavery violence in Kansas. 
( the previous day, a group of Border Ruffians
entered Lawrence, Kansas, 
where they burned the Free State Hotel, 
newspaper offices, and 1st gov's home .
May 24
 anti-slaver vigilantism:
. Pottawatomie Creek. vigilante John Brown 
(entered Kansas as an anti-slaver 1855)
has 7 slavers are broadsworded in the night . 
. 2 weeks later he captures
future Confederate Colonel Henry C. Pate 
and 22 other pro-slavery soldiers
at the Battle of Black Jack.
a congressional investigating committee
 found the elections to be improper
The President dismisses its recommendations,
and continued to recognize the
pro-slavery legislature .
July 4:
 Pierce sent federal troops 
to break up an attempted meeting
 of the anti-slaver shadow government .
"Battle of Osawatomie":
. thousands of Southern troops
 marched into Kansas, and for 2 months
 400 engaged Brown's anti-slavers;
then 2 years of intermittent violent outbreaks .
Marais des Cygnes massacre:
. The last major outbreak of violence was touched
where Border Ruffians killed 5 Free State men.

king cotton
 1859: end of Bleeding Kansas war
until Civil War in 1861 .

1861 January 29, Kansas is a free state:
. less than 3 months before the Civil War,
anti-slavers had one won a battle
entering kansas in the Union as a free state .

1861 American Civil War
-- 1.04 million fed'funded late-term abortions
but usa is no longer a flaming moronic hypocrite --

. 11 Southern slave states declared
secession from usa into a Confederacy;
 they were supported by all the free states
and by five slave (border) states .
. In the presidential election of 1860, 
the Lincoln`Republican Party had
campaigned against the expansion
of slavery beyond the states in which
it already existed. 
In response to the Republican victory
 in that election,
seven states declared their
 secession from the Union 
Both the outgoing administration
 of President James Buchanan 
and Lincoln's incoming administration 
rejected the legality of secession, 
considering it rebellion. 
Several other slave states rejected 
calls for secession at this point.

1866 Austro-Prussian War
(Germany's Seven Weeks War, Unification War,
German Civil War or Fraternal War)
. the German Confederation,
the Austrian Empire, and allies:
(Saxony  Bavaria  Baden Württemberg Hanover
 Hesse-Darmstadt Hesse-Kassel
 Reuss Elder Line Saxe-Meiningen
 Schaumburg-Lippe Nassau)
vs Prussia's allies:
(  Italy Mecklenburg-Schwerin
 Oldenburg Anhalt Brunswick Saxe-Altenburg
 Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
 Lippe Schwarzburg Waldeck Bremen Hamburg Lübeck)
Austria -- the home of the Habsburg Emperors --
was traditionally considered
the leader of the German states,
but Prussia was becoming increasingly powerful
and by the late 18th century
was ranked as one of the great powers of Europe.

1866 The Peace of Prague on August 23:
. results of Austro-Prussian War:
# Prussia is dominant in Germany,
both displacing Austrian influence of the
German Confederation states,
and annexing many of Austria's former allies .
# dissolution of the austrian-dominated
German Confederation (a gateway to creation of
the North German Confederation)
# the counter-napolean rise of German nationalism
would compel the remaining independent german states
to ally with Prussia in the upcoming Franco-Prussian War 
# Austria’s defeat was a telling blow to Habsburg rule;
the Empire was transformed via the

. Austria’s defeat in the Austro-Prussian War
 was a telling blow to Habsburg rule .

1867 North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund)
. a Prussian-lead federal state
realizing German nationalism .
. it cemented Prussian control over
northern Germany,
and emanated that same control
into southern Germany.
its constitution granted immense powers to
the chancellor, (its author)
Otto von Bismarck 
For all intents and purposes,
Prussia exercised near-total control
With 4/5 of the state's population,
the Hohenzollern kingdom was
larger than the other 21 states combined.

1870 Franco-Prussian War
-- rise of German Empire --
. france started firing after being
insulted by prussia .

1871, Siege of Paris
. at the Palace of Versailles 
some 20km southwest of Paris,
the states of the Federation were unified 
to form the German Empire,
. the Prussian king Wilhelm I is German Emperor .
reunifying various remnants from
the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
and creations of the 1815 Congress of Vienna .

The Treaty gave Germany possession of
a region of ethnic Germans that had
. the loss of Alsace-Lorraine was a
source of chronic resentment 
and contributed to french support for WWI ...

National elections returned an overwhelmingly
conservative government,
which, under President Adolphe Thiers,
established itself in Versailles,
fearing that the political climate of Paris
was too dangerous to set up the capital
in the city.
The new government, formed mainly of
conservative, middle-class rural politicians,
passed laws which greatly angered Paris,
such as the controversial Law of Maturities,
which decreed that all rents in Paris,
which had been postponed since
September 1870,
and all public debts across France,
which had been given a moratorium in
November 1870,
were to be paid in full, with interest, within 48 hours.
Paris shouldered an unfairly high proportion
of the indemnity payments made to the Prussians,
and the population of the city
quickly grew resentful of the Versailles government.
1871 Paris Commune 
. With Paris under the protection of the
revolutionary National Guard
and few regular soldiers in the city,
left-wing leaders established themselves
in the Hôtel de Ville
and established the Paris Commune,
which was savagely repressed by Versailles
with the loss of 20,000 lives.
Lenin's Russian Bolsheviks propaganda
portrayed this repression as
the reason 
socialist revolution swept Europe,
they would be crushed by the
military might of world capitalism,
just as the Paris Commune had been crushed
by force of arms in 1871.
To this end, the organization of a new
international to foment revolution
in Europe and around the world
became to the Bolsheviks an iron necessity.

1889 Second International

. an organization of socialist and labour parties
formed in Paris .
. it declared May 1 as International Workers' Day
and its March 8 as International Women's Day.
It initiated the international campaign for
the 8-hour working day .
Lenin was a member from 1905.

1912 germany's Marxist Social Democratic Party:
. it was Germany's strongest party in the Reichstag (congress)
But the Reichstag did not rule Germany.
The Kaiser ruled Germany by appointing officials .

1914 assassination of French socialist Jean Jaurès
killed the last hope of peace,
by removing one of the few leaders
who possessed enough influence
on the international socialist movement
to prevent it from
segmenting itself  along national lines
and supporting governments of National Unity.

1914 WWI -- 70 million attempted late-term abortions

WWI (Islamo-fascist vs Christi-commy war)
clearly showed the workers' movement as
separated by {revolutionary, reformist} wings .

1915 Zimmerwald Conference

. an international socialist conference,
which saw the beginning of the end
of the coalition between
revolutionary socialists (communists)
and reformist socialists (social democrats)
in the Second International .

. Lenin organized the "Zimmerwald Left"
a small group of socialist internationalists,
which protested the centrist-leaning majority of the conference,
Robert Grimm's "Zimmerwald center" .

. anti-war socialists attempted to
maintain international unity
against the the social democrat's
[nationalism before economic class].policy

Most Socialists gave up their their belief in
international unity among the working class
in favour of "defense of the fatherland",
most notably
the German Social Democratic Party
and French Socialist Party .

Fascists reject and resist the autonomy of
cultural or ethnic groups who are
not considered part of the fascists' nation
and who refuse to assimilate
or are unable to be assimilated.
Fascist governments forbid and suppress
opposition to the fascist state
and the fascist movement.
--[ that could be democratic,
if fascism where confined to the city state,
so that people who were in opposition
could easily migrate to another policy .]

bourgeois liberalism
Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations,
classical economic liberalism.
. origins of the French" bourgeois' 
are that of 'middle class'
however Marxist usage implies bankers or merchants.
Late 1980's saw the first major usage of the term when a number of campaigns against
bourgeois liberalism were initiated lasting till the early 1990's.
The term is in active use in Chinese politics,
with the Communist Party of China's Constitution
stating party objectives include
"combat[ing] bourgeois liberalization"
in line with the
Four Cardinal Principals.
They oppose liberalism (as a bourgeois movement)
and Marxism (as a proletarian movement)
for being exclusive economic class-based movements.
Fascists present their ideology as that of
an economically trans-class movement
that promotes ending economic class conflict
to secure national solidarity.
They believe that economic classes are not capable of
properly governing a nation, and that a merit-based elite
of experienced military persons must rule through
regimenting a nation's forces of production
and securing the nation's independence.
Fascism perceives conservatism as partly valuable for
its support of order in society
but disagrees with its typical opposition to
change and modernization.
Fascism presents itself as a solution to the
perceived benefits and disadvantages of conservatism
by advocating state-controlled modernization
that promotes orderly change
while resisting the dangers to order in society
of pluralism and independent initiative.
Fascists support a "third position" in economic policy,
which they believe superior to both the
rampant individualism of laissez-faire capitalism
and the severe control of state socialism.
Italian Fascism and most other fascist movements
promote a corporatist economy whereby, in theory,
representatives of capital and labour interest groups
work together within sectoral corporations
. the reason nazi's are called fascism
and jews anti-fascism
is that a key part of it 
is social-chauvinism:
one nation for one culure
-- manditory assimilation
(that part is completely anti-jewish) .]

Two outstanding examples of Communists
who fought against social-chauvinism in Germany during World War I
were Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht.
They stressed that the only violence that should be used
is the violence necessary to overthrow one's own government.
They agitated tirelessly in their nation
to show that common social relations united workers
across any national boundaries
and that the only blood the proletariat should shed
is the blood to gain their freedom.
Those who oppose social-chauvinism
often make use of the slogan
"No war but class war".

1916 Second International dissolved
. during WWI,  the parties that composed it
did not maintain a unified front
against involvement in the war,
instead generally supporting
their respective nations' role.
French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO)
leader Jean Jaurès's assassination,
a few days before the beginning of the war,
symbolized the failure of the
antimilitarist doctrine of the Second International.

1917 Russia's February Revolution

. Tsar Nicholas II's Imperial Russia
was fatally weakened by mutiny during WWI;
and, the collapse of the Tsar's power
meant the end of the Romanov dynasty.
. a form of autocracy (later, absolute monarchy)
specific to Grand Duchy of Muscovy
(later known as the Tsardom of Russia
and the Russian Empire)

Tsarism was replaced by a
Russian Provisional Government
an alliance between liberals and socialists
in a system known as 
Lenin's Dual power politic
. a situation in the wake of the February Revolution
in which two powers, 
# the workers councils
(particularly the Petrograd Soviet)
# the official state apparatus
(the Provisional Government),
coexisted with each other
and competed for legitimacy.
Lenin argued that this essentially unstable situation
constituted a unique opportunity
for the Soviets to seize power
by smashing the Provisional Government
and establishing themselves as the basis
of a new form of state power.

. the Provisional Government chose to
continue fighting Germany,
the Bolsheviks and other socialist factions
campaigned for the
 abandonment of the war effort.
The Bolsheviks formed the Red Guards (later the Red Army)

. Lenin's Bolshevik party and the workers' Soviets,
overthrew the Provisional Government
The Bolsheviks appointed themselves as leaders of
various government ministries
and seized control of the countryside,
establishing the Cheka to quash dissent.
To end the war, the Bolshevik leadership signed the
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918.
Civil war erupted between the "Red" (Bolshevik),
and "White" (anti-Bolshevik) factions,
which was to continue for several years,
with the Bolsheviks ultimately victorious.
In this way
the Revolution paved the way for the USSR.

. the world was truly shaken by the victory of
 the Russian Communist Party .
. the gentlemanly path to power
was of course parliamentary politics,
so a civil war over communism
was  shocking .
With much of Europe on the verge of
economic and political collapse
in the aftermath of the carnage of 1914's WWI,
revolutionary sentiments bubbled forth
from a hundred hidden streams.

While many notable historical events
 occurred in Moscow and St Petersburg,
there was also a broad-based movement in
cities throughout the state,
among national minorities throughout the empire,
and in the rural areas, where peasants took over
and redistributed land.

The Bolsheviks' position on the Constituent Assembly
evolved during 1917.
At first, like all the other socialist parties,
the Bolsheviks supported
the election of a Constituent Assembly.
Lenin himself later argued:
The demand for the convocation
 of a Constituent Assembly
was a perfectly legitimate part
 of the programme of
revolutionary Social-Democracy,
because in a bourgeois republic
the Constituent Assembly represents
the highest form of democracy.
But there was a potential contradiction
 in Bolshevik policy.
Since Lenin's April 1917 return from Switzerland,
the Bolsheviks had
distinguished themselves from other socialists
by calling for "All Power to the Soviets".
The Bolsheviks thus opposed
 "bourgeois" parliamentary bodies,
like the Provisional Government
 and the Constituent Assembly,
in favour of the Soviets
 (directly elected revolutionary councils
 of workers, soldiers and peasants)
which had arisen after the February Revolution.

. the Bolsheviks acted on this policy by
leading the October Revolution
 against the Provisional Government.
The uprising in Petrograd coincided with the
convocation of the Second All-Russian
Congress of Workers' and Soldiers' Soviets.
The Soviet deputies of the
 more moderate socialist parties,
the Mensheviks and the Right SRs,
walked out of the Congress in protest
at what they argued was
 a premature overthrow of the
"bourgeois" government
 in which they had participated.

1917 organized strikes in Germany
The longer the war lasted
 and the more victims it took,
the less SPD members were prepared to
keep up the "truce" of 1914;
also, since 1916,
the guidelines of German policy
was set not by the Kaiser and the Imperial Government
but the Supreme Army Command
 (Oberste Heeresleitung, or OHL)
and it was Generals Ludendorff
who made the fundamental and essential decisions.

He was later to give German history a decisive turn.
The generals pursued
expansionist and offensive war goals
and subjected civil life to the
needs of commanding a war and a war economy.
For the labor force,
this meant 12-hour work days
at minimal wages with inadequate provisions.
After the outbreak of the
 Russian February Revolution in 1917,
the first organized strikes erupted in
German armament factories in March and April
that year with about 300,000 participating workers.

The USA's entry into the war on 6 April 1917
threatened to further worsen the situation.
The Kaiser tried to appease the strikers
 in his Easter address of 7 April.
He promised democratic elections
after the war
in Prussia, where the three-class franchise system
 was still in force.
After the Friedrich Ebert` SPD-leadership
had excluded the opponents of the war
from the party ranks,
the Spartacists and then the so-called "Revisionists",
like Eduard Bernstein,
and the Centrists, like Karl Kautsky
responded to the growing dissatisfaction
 among the labor force.
9 April 1917, they founded
Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD)
under the leadership of Hugo Haase.
The SPD, also called "MSPD" (Majority Social Democrats),
remained under Friedrich Ebert.
The USPD demanded the immediate end of the war
and a further democratization of Germany,
but did not have a unified agenda for social policies.
The Spartacus League,
which until then had opposed a split of the party,
now made up the left wing of the USPD.
Both the USPD and the Spartacists continued their
anti-war propaganda in factories,
especially in the armament plants.

1918, 11.9 german socialist november revolution
The first acts of revolution
were triggered by the Supreme Command
missing coordination with Naval Command
which insisted on continuing
a lost battle with the British Royal Navy.
The Wilhelmshaven sailors' revolt
spread across the country
and led to the republic replacing
Kaiser(Emperor) Wilhelm II 
. the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD)
fearing an all-out civil war between communists
and the reactionary conservatives,
sought to integrate rather than purge the elite
(this entailed distancing themselves
from the russian Bolsheviks )
In this endeavour, SPD leftists sought an alliance
with the Supreme Command.
The army and Freikorps (nationalist militias)
quelled the so-called Spartacist uprising by force.
The political fragmentation among the left-wing
was a significant factor in the failure of the left to seize power.

1919 The Comintern (Communist International)

The socialist movement, opposed to being
used as "cannon fodder" for "bourgeois" war
had historically been antimilitarist
-- and internationalist, (we can trust
there will be no fighting if
every laborer knows 
every other laborer will
refuse to fight other laborers).

The Communist Manifesto had stated that
"the working class has no country"
and exclaimed
"Proletarians of all countries, unite!"

Massive majorities voted in favor of
resolutions for the Second International
to call upon the international working class
to resist war if it was declared.
--[ that just seems insane:
maybe in a twitter world
you could have
 confidence in the masses
but otherwise
you're smart to trust the one you're with .]

The only exceptions were the
socialist parties of the Balkans, Russia,
and tiny minorities in other countries.
To Lenin's surprise[?!], even the German SPD
voted in favor of war credits.
--[ perhaps the spd saw Lenin as a trick:
it's not easy eating the rich,
and then you might not get past the
rich of neighboring nations
(calling all neighbor's labor,
are we not all labor?
-- are we prepared to eat our rich
just so you can feel safe eating yours?!) .]

1949, George Orwell` Nineteen Eighty-Four: War is Peace.
where society keeps itself from
labor-inspired protest 
by constantly being at war.
[commentary of usa's cold war
and war by oriental proxy with ussr .]