2014-11-02

big clue from #DownSyndrome prone to #Alzheimer's

10.25: news.health/alz/big clue from Down's syndrome prone to Alzheimer's:
. most people with Down's syndrome get Alzheimer's disease?
that makes sense because they are prone to obesity,
and tend to be intolerant of sugar,
(they then get spikes in blood sugar
that raises cholesterol that causes Alzheimer's disease).

link between alz and sugar may be cholesterol:
. when alzheimers was reported to be a clumping of protein
and related to diabetes,
I had assumed it was a glycation problem,
but here is evidence that cholesterol is implicated
by way of reducing leptin levels
which apparently is what prevents the formation of amyloid-β
and the occurrence of phosphorylated tau .
. the way it all ties together is that
cholesterol is elevated by sugary diet,
and a sugary diet is a leading cause of diabetes
(see the theory and results of an epi'study).
more about AD .

intro to Down's syndrome's tendency toward obesity:
. associated problems in children with Down syndrome
include growth retardation, altered immune function,
and thyroid dysfunction (Nehring, 2010).
and they have a 4 to 16-fold increased risk of
mortality due to venous thromboembolitic disorders,
cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease
[ suggesting spikes of high blood sugar or diabetes ]
. they have a decreased resting metabolic rate;
at rest, children with Down syndrome,
even when euthyroid (not hypothyroid),
burn fewer calories than their counterparts,
contributing to the development of obesity.
. neonates with Down syndrome expend 14% fewer calories
and have significantly decreased muscle tone.
. prepubertal children with Down syndrome
have high levels of leptin;
and leptin may be a potential factor in the
development of obesity-increased leptin levels,
which were positively correlated with
increased body mass index (BMI) and degree of adiposity .
Leptin is a hormone that plays an important role in
regulating food intake by stimulating satiety
and promoting energy homeostasis via energy expenditure.
The hormone has been implicated in the development of obesity
within the general population and may also be relevant for
children with Down syndrome.