6.30, 7.4: summary:
. flaxseed and chia are interesting because they are
much cheaper than fish oil, and they contain
ALA, α-linolenic acid, a short-chain omega-3 polyunsaturate,
that can be converted into the very beneficial
long-chain omega-3's found in fish oil .
. ALA needs to be converted to fish oils
(long-chain omega-3 oils, EPA, DHA),
-- men's conversion to DHA is very inefficient:
DHA should be considered an essential fatty acid
(it's found in fish and eggs).
. the conversion to EPA is efficient
only only if your diet is paleo;
ie, low in the omega-6 (vs omega-3) polyunsaturates
that is heavy in grains, grain-fed meat & dairy,
fatty legumes (soy, peanut, chickpea), nuts
and most seeds except flax and chia .
. there was some controversial evidence for
ALA increasing the risk of blindness
or the advanced versions of prostate cancer
but you'd need to take a lot of chia fiber
to start worrying about chia's ALA load .
. getting more of any type of omega-3
may beneficially balance my diet's omega-6
(I get plenty from eggs, nuts, and olive oil).
. some flax has been genetically modified;
"organic" means the same as "non-gmo" .
men need dha supplements:. in adult men conversion to EPA is 8%;
and conversion to DHA is less than 0.1%;
whereas in women, conversion to DHA is 9% [Proc Nutr Soc. 2006].
. conversion of ALA is approximately 6% for EPA
and 3.8% for DHA. With a diet rich in omega-6,
conversion is reduced by 40 to 50%.
omega-6/omega-3 ratio should not exceed 6 .
. when dietary intake of LA was increased
from 4.7% to 9.3% of energy
the conversion of ALA to fish oils
was reduced by about 50%
. those with a modern diet high in LA (omega-6)
(nuts, grains, soy, peanut, grain-fed meat,
and most seeds except flax and chia)
would tend to need fish oil supplements
as they would benefit less from
increased doses of flaxseed or chia seed .
. reducing dietary LA [omega-6 polyunsaturates]
to reduce the ratio of LA to ALA
appear to be important for the metabolism of ALA
to long-chain omega-3 oils.
--. they appear to be saying that
if the diet is limited to 15g omega-6,
then 11g ALA is being needed in order for
the production of 1 g long-chain omega-3;
that would include EPA but little DHA .
To maintain a given level of EPA + DHA,
the dietary ALA required is 12.5, 33.5, 8.3 and 9.1 times higher
than the dietary EPA + DHA for liver, heart, brain and serum
benefits of flax:. flaxseed may protect me from Elevated CRP
(C-reactive protein values)? [greenmedinfo.com]
Flaxseed oil (with no fiber) decreases CRP levels
in 33% of those with high levels
[Nutr Res. 2012].
more on diet for lowering CRP .
. a marker for high blood sugar;. modest amounts of flaxseed daily will improve
Similar to the hemoglobin A1c testing
(which measures the glycation of hemoglobin),
fructosamine testing calculates the
glycation of serum proteins.
Since albumin is the most common protein in blood,
and albumin has a half-life of approximately 20 days,
the plasma fructosamine concentration reflects
relatively recent (1-2 week) changes in blood glucose .
glucose, insulin, and markers of inflammation
in those with with pre-diabetes
(overweight men and postmenopausal women).
. ground flaxseed daily was studied in 3 doses:
none, 2 tbsp, and 4 tbsp .
. 2 tbsp flaxseed lowered insulin values
4 tbsp additionally decreased CRP;
Participants with high glucose (110–125 mg/dL)
had significantly lower fructosamine values
for each increase in flaxseed dose
[FASExperiBiol J. 2010].
. atherosclerosis arises under the influence of. those who ate the most ALA
adhesion molecules. sICAM-1 is
soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 .
[not necessarily from flaxseed]
coincidentally had lower CRP levels .
Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (fish oils)
were inversely related to sICAM-1 [J Nutr 2004].
100 g brown flaxseed contains:
27g fiber -- with lignans (phytoestrogens);
3.6g sat'fat, 7.5 mono'oil,
28g poly'oil (21g omega-3, 7g omega-6)
-- compare to 100g chia's omega ratio:
(17.5g omega-3, 5.8g omega-6),
benefits of chia?. 12-week study of overweight people ages 20 to 70,
ingesting 50 g/d Chia seed vs nothing
had no influence on inflammation markers
(fasting blood levels of C-reactive protein,
interleukin 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1,
tumor necrosis factor alpha), or oxidative stress markers
(trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and plasma nitrite)
[Nutr Res. 2009].
. a 10-week study of overweight women,
Ingesting 25 g/day milled vs whole chia
increased plasma ALA and EPA, but had no influence on
inflammation or disease risk factors
[J Altern Complement Med. 2012].
but Salba is a different Salvia hispanica L. chia:Salvia hispanica is the domesticated chia;
but Salvia columbariae is also edible
Salba® is the trademark for the registered varieties of
Salvia Hispanic L. -- Sahi Alba 911 and Sahi Alba 912;
Salba chia has 22.87g of Omega-3 (ALA) per 100g.
Generic chia has 17.55g on average.
. Salba chia has 21.2g Protein per 100g;
Generic chia has 15.62g per 100g on average
. Salba chia looks very good compared to wheat bran:
Low-grade body inflammation measured by
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein
was not significantly different from baseline
in the Salba phase (−7%, P = 0.24)
but increased significantly (33%) during
the control phase, using wheat bran;
and was significantly higher at the end of the control phase
compared with the end of the Salba phase (40%, P = 0.04).
. in several recent randomized controlled trials (19,20)
conducted in hypercholesterolemic [sugary] subjects,
consumption of ALA diets
significantly decreased serum levels of CRP.
Consistent with these findings,
our results demonstrate that consumption of Salba,
a grain naturally high in ALA, resulted in
a significant decrease of hs-CRP,
and the changes in serum ALA and EPA were
inversely associated with changes in CRP.
. Eligibility criteria included the following:
documented type 2 diabetes for at least 6 months' duration
without clinically manifest complications,
age 18–75 years, nonpregnant, metabolically stable
(A1C 6.0–8.5% and fasting plasma glucose 6.4–8.5 mmol/l),
and not taking insulin, fiber supplements, ALA supplements,
or fish oil or consuming cold-water fish
more than three times per week.
. the chia and bran were dosed at 33-41g
part of a Canadian Diabetes Association diet;
Salba doubled both plasma ALA and EPA levels
[Diabetes Care 2007].
is flax associated with prostate cancer?. ALA was unrelated to the risk of total prostate cancer.
In contrast, ALA did seem to increase
relative risks of advanced prostate cancer
from comparisons of extreme quintiles:
ALA from vegetable has 2.02 risk
[highest use of veg ALA were twice as likely to get hit
than those using the least veg ALA];
ALA from meat and dairy has a 1.53 risk.
The increased risk of advanced prostate cancer
was seen even when the dose of ALA was within
the normal intake (2.2 g/d, 1% of energy for adults)
. suggestive positive relations were observed for
intakes of beef, pork, or lamb as a main dish
and for mayonnaise or other creamy salad dressings
[Am J Clin Nutr 2004].
. why would the sickest men get the most of
vegetarian sources of ALA?
perhaps they saw veg'oil as a health food:
(High ALA intake was associated with. mayo is typically made from soybean oil
reduced risk of fatal heart disease).
that has an omega-6 to omega-3 ratio of over 7
so that getting 1% of energy from mayo`ALA
would entail getting about 8% of energy from
inflammatory omega-6 .
. a flaxseed diet study in prostate cancer patients
reported a suggestive decrease in PSA
in men with Gleason sums suggesting good prognosis
whereas in men with a poor prognosis,
there was a suggestive increase in PSA (P = 0.13).
. in animal models of prostate tumor growth,
ALA shows no protective effect;
and, in vitro, ALA can promote cancer growth
[Am J Clin Nutr 2004]
. epi'studies also showed an increased risk of
prostate cancer in men with high ALA intake;
usa's important sources of ALA are
mayonnaise, creamy salad dressings, margarine,
butter, beef, pork, lamb,
and oil-and-vinegar–based dressings [J.Nutr.2004].
. in recent decades, the usa's availability of ALA
as a proportion of total energy intake
has increased by 40%. [Am J Clin Nutr 2004].
. if both of the above studies are true
then the one measuring total prostate cancers
was actually detecting only "advanced" cases .
is ALA associated with macular degeneration?. "diets rich in ALA may substantially
increase the risk of macular degeneration"
. looking at the places where usa gets ALA
these are also sources of a lot of omega-6
and sometimes trans fats,
affecting levels of arachidonic acid
and the balance of good vs bad eicosanoids .
. flaxseed and chia when carefully prepared
to prevent peroxidation of polyunsaturates
is likely not a source of macular degeneration .
. those with cataracts also had less monounsaturates
less fatty fish [long-chain omega-3 oil]
more cheese and meat (beef, pork, or lamb),
more "Mayonnaise or other creamy salad dressings"
[soy or canola oil, stale yolks vs fresh raw]
and more trans fats
[ Am J Epidemiol. 2005 ].
. eggs seemed as protective against nuclear cataract
as "vegetables" (7/10ths risk);
only "spinach and greens" did better (6/10).
. whole grains were nearly as good(8/10)
[perhaps an indicator of other healthier choices]
whereas those eating the most nuts, seeds and fruits
were also doing things that promoted cataracts
[Beaver Dam Eye Study 1999].
. excessive use of nuts and seeds can result in
getting too much omega-6 oil;
and fruits contribute to glycemic and fructose load .
. there were some epi'studies that suggested
short-chain omega-3's might increase the risk of blindness,
but the typical sources of short-chain omega-3
were grain-fed meat and salad dressings
which include soybean oil and abused eggyolks
(a raw Eggland's Best yolk is a healthy yolk).