2013-11-30

#superfood #slowcarb trehalose

30: web.health/trehalose:
. trehalose is a sugar(sucrose) substitute,
that has a moderate glycemic index,
and various medical benefits .
Trehalose is a double glucose
with a slowly digested α,α-1,1 linkage
Trehalose is an autophagy inducer
that promotes the clearance of the aggregate-prone proteins
as does caloric restriction,
whereas insulin is an autophage inhibitor [Page 168]
counteracts diabetes suppression of autophagy:
Trehalose prevents neural tube defects
by correcting maternal diabetes-suppressed autophagy .
Autophagy, an intracellular process to
degrade dysfunctional protein
and remove damaged cellular organelles,
it regulates cell proliferation,
differentiation, and apoptosis.
Because autophagy impairment causes
NTDs (neural tube defects)
reminiscent of those observed in diabetic pregnancies,
we hypothesize that maternal
diabetes-induced autophagy impairment
causes NTD formation by disrupting cellular homeostasis,
leading to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis,
and that restoration of autophagy by trehalose,
prevents diabetes-induced NTDs. 
Trehalose, a Novel Autophagy Enhancer:
J Biol Chem 282(8):5641-52 (2007)
Trehalose protects cells against various environmental stresses.
Trehalose-induced autophagy enhanced the clearance of
autophagy substrates like mutant huntingtin
associated with Huntington disease (HD);
and the A30P and A53T mutants of α-synuclein,
associated with Parkinson disease (PD).
By inducing autophagy, we showed that
trehalose also protects cells against
subsequent pro-apoptotic insults
via the mitochondrial pathway. 
Durk&Sandy's review of the above paper:
. the paper identifies a novel role for trehalose
as an autophagy inducer, leading to
enhanced clearance of aggregation-prone proteins .
. that paper identifies trehalose as an enhancer of autophagy,
a cell-digesting process that, for instance,
allows for the clearance of aggregate-prone proteins
such as mutant huntingtin fragments (Huntington’s disease),
other polyQ mutations, mutant alpha-synucleins
(as in Parkington’s and Alzheimer’s diseases),
and tau (as in Alzheimer’s).
. that paper notes that, among other things,
trehalose inhibits amyloid formation of insulin in vitro
and prevents aggregation of beta-amyloid
associated with Alzheimer’s disease:
the clearance of aggregate-prone proteins
depends strongly on autophagy.
Trehalose can be found in Durk&Sandy's
FoldRight™ formulation of osmolytesthat act as chaperones to help proteins fold properly. 
bone loss suppression [Nutr Res. 2001]
. trehalose suppresses bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) mice
by way of inhibiting osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow.
Also, trehalose inhibits the secretion of
interleukin-6 in bone marrow cell cultures,
resulting in a decrease in osteoclast formation.
Trehalose significantly suppressed LPS-induced
tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production
after 90 min and decreased the number of osteoclasts in the bone marrow
48 hours after LPS injection.
These results indicate that trehalose suppresses
excessive osteoclastogenesis not only in OVX mice
but also in a LPS-induced bone resorption mouse model
and further suggest that the latter finding may be mediated
at least in part through a decrease in TNF-alpha production. 
well tolerated:
. A clinical study performed in the UK
showed that 98% of the population
had no problems with trehalose.
(2% experienced some gas).
antidepressant in mice:
Trehalose induced antidepressant-like effects
and autophagy enhancement in mice.
. trehalose protects cells from hypoxic and anoxic injury
and suppresses protein aggregation.
In vivo studies with trehalose show cellular and behavioral
beneficial effects in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases.
Moreover, trehalose was shown to enhance autophagy,
a process suggested to be involved in
the therapeutic action of mood-stabilizing drugs.
The results suggest that trehalose
may have antidepressant-like properties.
It is hypothesized that these behavioral changes
could be related to trehalose effects to enhance autophagy.
immense benefits to food technologists:
. it is fully caloric, has no laxative effects
as it is metabolized into glucose;
yet it has a moderate glycaemic index
and low cariogenicity [unlikely to cause tooth cavities].
. other cooking properties include low hygroscopicity,
high freezing-point depression,
high glass transition temperature
high protein protection properties .
interactions [4yourtype.com]:
Trehalose has been accepted as a
novel food ingredient under the GRAS terms in the U.S. and the EU.
Mixing in a spoonful of
ARA 6 - Pure Larch Powder will increase its effectiveness.
Dr. D'Adamo recommends taking Trehalose
an hour away from green tea, coffee, curcumin or quercetin.
sources:
$478/ 80 lbs
$17/454g
$80/kg
$24/250g
Durk&Sandy's FoldRight™ osmolytes